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## Main Question or Discussion Point

The Kepler equation is: M = E - e Sin(E); where M is the mean anomaly and E the eccentric anomaly and e is the eccentricity.

we get it from integrating dr/r' and changing variables to E, how did Kepler get it without calculus and using only his laws.

Another thing how did he see his second law (areal velocity) without differentiation.

we get it from integrating dr/r' and changing variables to E, how did Kepler get it without calculus and using only his laws.

Another thing how did he see his second law (areal velocity) without differentiation.