Large Bipolar radio bubbles in the Galactic Centre

In summary, the article discusses the Galactic Centre and its supermassive black hole, which has been relatively inactive compared to other active galactic nuclei. However, X-ray observations provide evidence of energetic outbursts from its surroundings. The authors suggest that these outbursts may be caused by interactions between the black hole and the dense gas present in the central molecular zone. They also propose that a major event in the past, possibly a cluster formation or an explosion involving a large amount of matter, could have contributed to the increased cosmic-ray density and the formation of the radio filaments and bubble cavities in the Galactic Centre.
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Buzz Bloom
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TL;DR Summary
Inflation of 430-parsec bipolar radio bubbles in the
Galactic Centre by an energetic event

From Nature: volume 573, pages235–237 (2019)
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1532-5
I confess that I am unable to understand the technical presentation in this article. I am hoping that someone at PF will be able to respond with a simplified summary about what this article is describing.

Quote from Abstract
The Galactic Centre contains a supermassive black hole with a mass of four million Suns within an environment that differs markedly from that of the Galactic disk. Although the black hole is essentially quiescent in the broader context of active galactic nuclei, X-ray observations have provided evidence for energetic outbursts from its surroundings. Also, although the levels of star formation in the Galactic Centre have been approximately constant over the past few hundred million years, there is evidence of increased short-duration bursts, strongly influenced by the interaction of the black hole with the enhanced gas density present within the ring-like central molecular zone at Galactic longitude |l| < 0.7 degrees and latitude |b| < 0.2 degrees.
. . .
We postulate that the progenitor event was a major contributor to the increased cosmic-ray density in the Galactic Centre, and is in turn the principal source of the relativistic particles required to power the synchrotron emission of the radio filaments within and in the vicinity of the bubble cavities.
 
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The main article is behind a pay wall. Here is one on Archive.

My impression from the abstract is that the authors deliberately avoided specifying what happened. They are reporting that the time is several million years ago. The magnitude of the explosion is 1046 Joules. They just want to report on the size and shape of the bubble. The bubble is about the same size in both directions and the radio and x-ray bubble shapes match. From that they conclude that it was created by a single event.

We can contemplate various scenarios. Suppose Wily Coyote sets a trap for road runner at the galactic center. If he uses sticks of TnT he needs a billion solar masses. A rock fall trap is more promising since the rocks can fall into the black hole and road runner is likely to use the black hole for gravity assist. If 11% of the rest mass of the rock is converted to energy then Coyote needs a 1030 kg (1 solar mass) rock. If Coyote used antimatter he would have needed to use 50 Jupiter masses of it.

There is a cluster near the galactic center that could have formed 7 million years ago.
 
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Related to Large Bipolar radio bubbles in the Galactic Centre

1. What are large bipolar radio bubbles in the Galactic Centre?

Large bipolar radio bubbles are structures that can be observed in the radio wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum in the Galactic Centre of our Milky Way galaxy. They are characterized by their distinct shape, with two lobes extending outwards from the center, and are thought to be created by a phenomenon known as a galactic wind.

2. How large are these radio bubbles?

The size of these radio bubbles can vary, but they can reach sizes of up to several thousand light years in diameter. This makes them some of the largest structures in our galaxy.

3. What causes these bubbles to form?

The exact cause of these large bipolar radio bubbles is still not fully understood, but it is believed that they are created by a combination of processes, including the intense magnetic fields and high-energy particles near the Galactic Centre, as well as the activity of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.

4. How are these radio bubbles detected and studied?

These radio bubbles can be observed and studied using radio telescopes, such as the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico. By analyzing the radio emissions from these structures, scientists can learn more about their size, shape, and other properties.

5. What can we learn from studying these large bipolar radio bubbles?

Studying these structures can provide valuable insights into the processes and dynamics of the Galactic Centre, as well as the role of supermassive black holes in shaping the evolution of galaxies. They can also help us better understand the distribution of matter and energy in our galaxy and the universe as a whole.

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