When you reach out to grab something that is hot, or you receive an unexpected electrical shock, the normal human reaction to withdrawal the limb is reflexive, or so I understand. As such, no signal reaches the brain before the reflex begins - if this is incorrect, let me know. However, given warning that the object will be hot (but endurable), or that a mild shock will be administered, we can willfully repress the reaction. 1) How is this accomplished, exactly. No need to dumb it down - I'm trying to learn. 2) Wouldn't this provide a simple way to study "intention"? Couldn't we implement studies in which a control group is ignorant of the heat/shock, while another is completely "in the know", and then monitor brain activity to pinpoint the location of the "intention" to supress the reflex? Or has (as is most likely) this already been done? What has been concluded and where can I find papers on the subject?