# Natural ventilation through single opening

• arc_sd
In summary, the conversation discusses the process of ventilating a room using natural ventilation through a single opening, taking into consideration the presence of a ventilation grill. The conversation also touches on the importance of allowing hot air near the ceiling to escape and the role of vents in achieving efficient cooling. The possibility of using two vents instead of one is also mentioned. The conversation concludes with a discussion on guidelines for calculating ventilation and the impact of the vent grill on the process.
arc_sd
Hello,

I am wondering what will happen if I try to ventilate a room by natural ventilation through a single opening. In this opening there will be a ventilation grill.
I already found a paper about counterflow through an open door by temperature differences: http://www.aivc.org/sites/default/files/airbase_4535.pdf
But is this right for my problem? And how do I take the ventilation grill into account?

Thanks in advance!

Welcome to PF!

As far as I can tell you haven't actually stated what the problem is, but the International Mechanical Code specifies the minimum acceptable opening size based on floor area.

I want to cool a room down of 40 degrees Celsius with an outside temperature of 30 degrees Celsius, only with natural ventilation (worst case scenario).
I want to know how this can be calculated and if it's possible.

You need to allow hot air near the ceiling to escape. That can only happen if cooler air from outside can enter the room lower down.

You cannot ventilate by convection through a single opening unless that opening is close to the height of the room and counterflow is possible.

The grill is a complexity that only arises once you have selected your vents.

The opening is from the bottom to the top with a certain spacing between the floor and ceiling. So it is almost the full height.
That's why I showed the example of the door, because this looks the most like my problem.

The hottest air pools near the ceiling. That heats the ceiling, then radiates down into the room. If you want to cool the room efficiently you need to vent that uppermost air. That requires a vent in the ceiling or at the very top of a wall.

I cannot understand why you propose one vent when you could have two. Why mix the two flows in one vent unnecessarily. It would be better to have two small vents, one at the top and one at the bottom, than one in the area between them.

What will you have outside the vent(s)? With two vents you can have the top vent with a vertical flue, while the bottom vent can receive cool air from below the building.

Yes I know. But I want to know what will be the flow when it is just 1 vent (just because there is no other option in a certain room)

arc_sd said:
Yes I know. But I want to know what will be the flow when it is just 1 vent (just because there is no other option in a certain room)
I have no on hand experience with vents and it is not yet clear if it is already built out of the conversations above.
If built, could you measure the airflow velocity by cigarette smoke? Thus you could obtain an airflow by taking the surface area of the vent divided in half (half in half out) and multiply it by the velocity (you could need to average respective to height).
It will vary by a large amount according to outside wind speed and I/O temperature difference.

Yes ofcourse that's possible, but I want to calculate it beforehand.
So if the formulas I've found are right I want to use them, but I want to correct them for the vent grill.
Does anybody know?

Well, I would start by correcting for the reduced open area of the vent grille. If the vent has 70% open area, the best you can get is 70% of the venting of an "open door." If the vent openings are small, say <1 cm, you'll lose more venting ability.

There are no guidelines for a problem like this?

The only guidelines I know of are for attic ventilation and these just use "open area" with no input for actual hole geometry...very crude.

Well ok, so they just take the total area minus the area of the vent grill?

arc_sd said:
Well ok, so they just take the total area minus the area of the vent grill?
Yep, that's it.

## 1. What is natural ventilation through single opening?

Natural ventilation through single opening is a method of air exchange in buildings that utilizes a single opening, such as a window or door, to allow fresh air to enter and stale air to exit. This helps to improve indoor air quality and reduce the build-up of pollutants and moisture.

## 2. How does natural ventilation through single opening work?

Natural ventilation through single opening works by utilizing the principles of pressure and temperature differences between the indoor and outdoor air. As warm air rises, it creates a pressure difference that draws fresh air in through the opening. This creates a natural flow of air that helps to circulate and ventilate the space.

## 3. What are the benefits of natural ventilation through single opening?

The benefits of natural ventilation through single opening include improved indoor air quality, reduced energy costs, and increased comfort. It also helps to reduce the risk of mold and mildew growth, as well as the spread of airborne illnesses.

## 4. Are there any limitations to natural ventilation through single opening?

Yes, there are some limitations to natural ventilation through single opening. It may not be suitable for all climates or building types, as it relies on outdoor air conditions. It may also be less effective in highly polluted areas or during extreme weather conditions.

## 5. How can I improve natural ventilation through single opening in my building?

To improve natural ventilation through single opening, you can strategically place the opening in areas with the most air movement, such as near trees or in the direction of prevailing winds. You can also use devices such as window fans or vents to enhance the air flow. Regular maintenance of the opening is also important to ensure it functions properly.

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