Temperature Definition and 208 Discussions

Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat, a flow of energy, when a body is in contact with another that is colder or hotter.
Temperature is measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various temperature scales that historically have used various reference points and thermometric substances for definition. The most common scales are the Celsius scale (formerly called centigrade, denoted as °C), the Fahrenheit scale (denoted as °F), and the Kelvin scale (denoted as K), the last of which is predominantly used for scientific purposes by conventions of the International System of Units (SI).
The lowest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which no more thermal energy can be extracted from a body. Experimentally, it can only be approached very closely (100 pK), but not reached, which is recognized in the third law of thermodynamics.
Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, chemistry, Earth science, astronomy, medicine, biology, ecology, material science, metallurgy, mechanical engineering and geography as well as most aspects of daily life.

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  1. jones1234

    I Can you estimate vertical wind speed based upon temperature difference?

    Hi all, I have some data from an automatic weather station, with recordings of both 2m air temperature and 2m air pressure and also the surface temperature. Is it possible to estimate vertical wind speeds between the AWS and the surface based upon this data? Imagine T_a = 15 degrees and T_s =...
  2. S

    I Thermodynamic Identity

    I have a question about the Thermodynamic Identity. The Thermodynamic Identity is given by dU = TdS - PdV + \mu dN . We assume that the volume V and that the number of particles N is constant. Thus the Thermodynamic Identity becomes dU = TdS . Assume that we add heat to the system (we see that...
  3. fluidistic

    I Extremely strange consequence of the speed of heat value

    By chance, I have read a paper that left me in shambles. I would like you to help me figure out if it makes sense or not. I tried to follow Bridgman's logic, without a complete success. The extraordinary claim is that, if you start with a system consisting of a 1cm^3 copper cube where 2 faces...
  4. E

    Effect of temperature on vibrational frequency of a violin string

    Variables: Dependent: Vibrational frequency of violin string (Measured using mobile tuning app) Independent: Temperature in which string is plucked (Measured using infrared thermometer) Controlled: Violin String, Tension of violin string, Length of violin string, Method of plucking...
  5. Huzaifa

    Chemistry Effect of temperature change in Le Chatelier's Principle

    The effect of temperature change in Le Chatelier's Principle is given by the equation $$ \log \left(\frac{\mathrm{K}_{2}}{\mathrm{~K}_{1}}\right)=\frac{\Delta \mathrm{H}}{2.303 \mathrm{R}}\left[\frac{1}{\mathrm{~T}_{1}}-\frac{1}{\mathrm{~T}_{2}}\right] $$. How to derive $$ \log...
  6. C

    B Cooling the room with a ceiling fan and skylight window

    Hello, So I know that a ceiling fan either operate clockwise (winter mode) or counter-clockwise (summer mode) and while the fan is meant for just moving air around, I'm wondering if utilizing a ceiling fan and an opened skylight window only a few feet near the ceiling fan would help move the...
  7. pixelsnpings

    Calculating temp rise caused by electric arc in an enclosed space

    Summary:: Given a known closed space/apparatus ( e.g. constant volume, pressure, density, current, temperature, voltage, spark gap distance - let me know if I missed something) how would I compute the change in gas temperature. Hello, Given a known closed space/apparatus ( e.g. constant...
  8. D

    Hot Air Balloon

    Volume of hot air ballon V=((4/3 pi R^3)/2) + (1/3 pi h (R^2 + r^2 + Rh) = 2956.24 m3 Balloon: R=9m h=15m r=1m m = 750 kg H = 5000m T = 373 K p1 = 101300 Pa p2 = 50650 Pa M(air) = 0.029 kg/mol F = mg - 7350 N
  9. Mohammad Sakib

    Why the temperature of a car does not increase with velocity?

    We know temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of molecules/particles of a system. Now if a car starts to move, its velocity increases so does its kinetic energy. Therefore all the molecules are gaining velocity too. Shouldn't this increase the temperatre as average kinetic energy of...
  10. A

    I What is a "temperature distribution" in a stellar photosphere?

    What is a "temperature distribution" in the context of a stellar photosphere and How is the temperature distribution related to the effective temperature?
  11. jdawg

    Total Emissivity as a Function of Temperature (Ceramics)

    Hello, I’m trying to better my understanding of how the total emissivity changes with temperature for ceramic materials. Currently it is my understanding that non-metals typically have a high emissivity. A sanded surface will result in a higher emissivity, and that spectral emissivity varies...
  12. hagopbul

    Freezing temperature of vaccines

    Hello all: I have this question , as we all watch the vaccine of covid-19 reach the market I had this question if the storage temperature of this vaccine is between -20 c to -70c Why the nano droplets in this liquid do not create ice the liquid is not freezing under that conditions although it...
  13. bagasme

    Why we learn the Reaumur temperature scale when there aren't any practical use of it?

    Hi, In high school physics I learned how to convert between Celcius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, and Reaumur scale of temperature. While the first three scales are highly used, why do we learn the fourth scale (Reaumur) when there aren't any practical use of it? Just for formality? Bagas
  14. StoningTree

    Cooling with Evaporation

    First i calculated the latent heat of vaporation: h_vap(15°C)= 2465.4 kJ/kg In the next step i calculated how much water is already in the air: x=0.622*j*ps/(p-j*ps)=0.00988 kg/kg where: j=50% ps=0.03171 bar p=1.01325 bar Now that i know that i can calculate the enthalpy of humid air: h_hum =...
  15. Amaterasu21

    At what size is kinetic energy no longer related to temperature?

    Hi all, I've read so many times that "temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance," or sometimes "particles" to encompass atoms and ions too. But how big can "molecules/particles" be before their kinetic energy is no longer relevant to temperature? If...
  16. Kayla Martin

    Why is the degeneracy criterion the same for all stars?

    Is it anything to do with the equation being independent of mass etc.. of the star? or to do with the Pauli exclusion principle? Any help will be much appreciated.
  17. Athenian

    One-Dimensional Wave Equation & Steady-State Temperature Distribution

    To begin with, I can first let ##T(x,y) = X(x) Y(y)## to be the given solution. With this, I can then continue by writing: $$Y \frac{\partial^2 X}{\partial x^2} + X \frac{\partial^2 Y}{\partial y^2} = 0$$ $$\Longrightarrow \frac{1}{X} \frac{\partial ^2 X}{\partial x^2} + \frac{1}{Y}...
  18. I

    Question about calculating the minimum temperature in hot air balloons

    First, I tried using the Archimedes principle and calculated the weight of the surrounding air displaced when taking off. ##W = 2500\times 1.29\times 9.81 = 31637.25 N## But then, I got stuck and do not know how to proceed from here on. I don't want the full solution yet but can I get some...
  19. Low-Q

    Calculating energy requirements to sustain temperature

    Hi. I have 3D printer with a heated bed, made of a 400x300 mm aluminium, that is 4mm thick. The surrounding air temperature is about 10°C. When printing with different materials, it is required to keep the bed at different temperatures. What I experience is that the driver which controlls...
  20. sneakycooky

    The relationship b/w infrared, temperature, and electron excitation

    Homework Statement:: 1. Does the increase in kinetic energy in (for example) water that results from increasing its temperature result from electron excitation (i.e. increasing electron energy levels) or simply increasing their velocity or vibration amplitude/frequency? 2. If excitation is...
  21. TachyonLord

    Resistance of Platinum decreases with an increase in temperature ?

    Basic Procedure The experiment basically involves finding the null point on the Carey Foster's bridge with the PRT as the unknown resistance and using a Resistance box as the variable resistance. In the above diagram, P and Q are 2 fixed resistors of equal resistances. For obtaining the first...
  22. fernelau

    Does the Focal Length of a convex lens affect the time it takes to heat up water?

    Summary: Hi, I'm doing an assessment for Physics on Optics topics, but I can't really explain how the CV affect the RV CV : Focal length of convex lens RV : Temperature of water after 20 minutes under the sun How I should explain for the temperature difference? 🤔 Please help, Thanks.
  23. L

    Thermodynamic Systems - Volume, Final Pressure and Final Temperature

    Mass = 0.12kg Initial temp = 500°c = 773K Initial pressure = 0.8 MPa = 800,000 Pa Final volume = 90L R = 287 Jkg^-1K^-1 1) Initial Volume V=mRT/P 0.12 x 287 x 773 / 800,000 = 26,662.12m^3 2) Final Pressure P2 = P1P2^1.2/V2^1.2 800,000 x 26,662.12^1.2 / 90 = 1,816,095,330 Pa = 1,816 MPa 3)...
  24. J

    I Basic adiabatic expansion Question

    I have a compressed pure gas at a specific temperature and volume. (T1, V1) It suddenly (adiabatically) expands until it's at ambient pressure and a specific temperature. (P2, T2). Given: T1, V1, T2, and P2, I want to find P1 and V2. There's a great example in wikipedia which is almost...
  25. W

    Gas Law - increasing temperature with constant volume held

    I've set up a simple experiment to look at the ideal gas laws. My experiment is relatively simple in that I have a metal tube which is capped on one side. I am then pressurising the tube with air to 100 psi and locking it off. My thought is that as the pressure increased, with volume held...
  26. D

    Thermodynamic possiblity for outlet temperatures of heat exchanger

    I have a heat & mass balance diagram wherein there is a shell and tube heat exchanger to recover heat from hot exhaust gas using cold water. The exhaust gas inlet temperature is 120°C and the outlet is at 40°C. The inlet water temperature is 35°C while the outlet water temperature is at 50°C...
  27. C

    Decompression of dry air in relation to temperature

    I have a problem that i cannot solve despite my best efforts. I do realize not all information here is relevant, but i still included it so you could get the full picture. Imagining we have a cylinder that is filled with dry air (normal air without water vapor) that has a fixed volume of 8,5...
  28. T

    A Stefan-Boltzmann Equation question (qualitative)

    Hi, In the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiation heat transfer, there exists expected parameters of any model (area, constants, etc.). However, the temperature is raised to the fourth power. Can someone explain why? I get that it could just be because it has been "experimentally observed."...
  29. hnnhcmmngs

    Equation of state of a solid

    Homework Statement [/B] Find the equation of state of a solid that has an isobaric expansion coefficient dV/dT = 2cT - bp and an isothermal pressure-volume coefficient dV/dp = -bT (Assume the solid has a volume Vo at zero temperature and pressure. Enter a mathematical equation. Use any variable...
  30. DLeuPel

    Temperature and the kinetic energy of everything

    Earth rotates, it also orbits the Sun, the Sun orbits the galaxies and these have they’re own velocities as well. We know that the kinetic energy is measured by its velocity, and also that kinetic energy is related with temperature. By this I mean that the movement of particles are a measure of...
  31. P

    Surface tension in terms of temperature and concentration of an added substance

    Hi! Here's a tricky thermodynamics problem, I hope you can help with it. 1. Homework Statement The boundary between two different materials can be divided into two different kind of phases: bulk phases and surface phases. For example, let's consider a boundary between water and air. We can...
  32. Lukeblackhill

    Heat during the Day

    Hi! My question is: I understand that at noon-day it’s hotter because of the angle with which sun rays enter our atmosphere. But at the same time, I was wondering that the band of radiation responsible for heating things is infrared, and that at noon basically all bands of lower frequency than...
  33. J

    Calculate the final temperature of the mixture

    Homework Statement Consider the following reaction. 2 HCl(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) BaCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) ΔH = -118 kJ Calculate the heat when 100.8 mL of 0.500 M HCl is mixed with 300.0 mL of 0.450 M Ba(OH)2. Assuming that the temperature of both solutions was initially 25.0°C and that the final...
  34. J

    Calculate the final temperature of the solution

    Homework Statement Consider the dissolution of CaCl2. CaCl2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq) ΔH = -81.5 kJ A 10.6-g sample of CaCl2 is dissolved in 109 g of water, with both substances at 25.0°C. Calculate the final temperature of the solution assuming no heat lost to the surroundings and assuming...
  35. H

    A Is it possible for a material to be a conductor in one direction and insulator in another?

    Generally, a material is metal or insulator is simply determined by the gap. But if we view it in another way, to measure the resistance in different direction, says x and y, and there are usually different. And then measure the resistance change with temperature. Usually, the resistances goes...
  36. hagopbul

    Are there other variables that control climate change?

    Hello all It's been a while ,as I read the almost daily news on climate change , some question come up to my mind , dose the ionosphere has any effect on climate change , as we all know now the earth magnetic field is weakening ,and the temperature is rising ,dose this two variables related to...
  37. KristinaMr

    ℃^-1 question

    Homework Statement This is the problem. A pair of eyeglass frames is made of epoxy plastic. At room temperature (20.0°C), the frames have circular lens holes 2.20 cm in radius. To what temperature must the frames be heated if lenses 2.21 cm in radius are to be inserted in them? The average...
  38. J

    B When Difference between Kelvin and Celsius are negligible

    This question is more for practicality than anything else, and I realize it may be partly subjective. At what temperatures can the 273 degree difference between Kelvin and Celsius scales be ignored? I'm thinking for examples regarding stars and very high temperatures. Surely once you get to 15...
  39. K

    Electronics Temperature Sensing to Switch on/off an Induction Heater

    Hello, I'm having trouble thinking of ways that I can measure the temperature of an object that I am heating using an Induction Heater. A little background: The coil and workpiece will be submerged in liquid, and due to most thermometers being metal it won't work with the induction heater. I'm...
  40. DaynaClarke

    Finding b in Van der Waals Equation?

    I've got a question that requires me to use the Van der Waals equation in the form: p(V-b)=nRT The process is isobaric, the volume changes from 1m3 to 2m3, and there is 1 mole of the unidentified gas. Ultimately, I need to find initial and final values of T. So I rearranged the formula...
  41. S

    Analogies between temperature and time in thermodynamics

    Looking through the book of abstracts for «XXI International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics in Russia (RCCT-2017)» I came across the abstract of talk given by Peter Atkins (University of Oxford) titled «Thoughts about thermodynamics» (you'll find the whole abstract at the end of the...
  42. PlanetGazer8350

    B Bonding energy in compounds

    I have been researching on the bonding energies of different compounds, and for example, for CO2 it is 1600kJ/mole, 1600kJ/44g, or ~36.37kJ/g of energy required to split the carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen. Furthermore, I transformed the amount of energy required in kJ to degrees celsius...
  43. Andres Padilla

    Why this special case occurs in an exchange of heat

    Homework Statement Hello. First of all sorry about this question, it has to do a little with heat transfer from engineering. This situation is not real, I was working in a proyect and this doubt came to me. I have a heat exchanger of parallel tubes. Water flows in a tube and oil flows in...
  44. dromeascr

    Question about vapor pressure

    Hello everyone, before I start I just want to mention that I am not an expert in physics whatsoever, so please be as specific as you can get if you wish to provide an answer. (The question itself might be considered stupid to be honest) I read the definition of the boiling point recently and...
  45. negative

    Relation between boltsmann/gas constant and temperature

    so i have been trying to calculate boltsmann constant by assuming the fact that for an ideal gas the equation : PV=nRT is true. i assume that for containing each molecule the wall needs to apply a force. now here is where it get's a little weird. each molocule should be only deflected in the...
  46. A

    Dielectric constant of air with temperature change

    I'm looking to see how much the dielectric constant of air will change mostly as a function or air temperature. Is there a formula that outputs air dielectric as a function of temperature or atmospheric pressure?
  47. E

    How do I calculate the gauge pressure?

    Homework Statement An automobile tire is pumped up to a gauge pressure of ##2.0 \times 10^5 ## Pa when the temperature is 27◦ C. What is its gauge pressure after the car has been running on a hot day so that the tire temperature is 77◦ C? Assume that the volume remains fixed and take...
  48. H

    Does the initial temperature affect the change in temp?

    Say I dissolve NaOH in water - a very exothermic reaction. Does it matter if I dissolve it in water that is at room temperature or at a different temperature? Will changing the initial temperature of the water affect the dH of the reaction (hence affect the change in temperature at the end of...
  49. A

    Using an IR Thermal Gun to check for steam passing valves

    Greetings I am asking about the reliability of using a thermal gun to check if there is passing downstream the valve. The fluid is either steam or air. Wouldn’t the pressure and temperature drop sharply downstream the valve if it is closed but passing ? again I am talking about air or steam...
  50. B

    Change of temperature

    Hi, I have a little conceptual question. I have an idea about the topic, but I would need to formalize it a little bit. The problem is the following: Imagine the following scenario: You put a little bit of water in a bottle, you assure yourself that everything as at a constant temperature and...