# What is Temperature: Definition and 999 Discussions

Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat, a flow of energy, when a body is in contact with another that is colder or hotter.
Temperature is measured with a thermometer. Thermometers are calibrated in various temperature scales that historically have used various reference points and thermometric substances for definition. The most common scales are the Celsius scale (formerly called centigrade, denoted as °C), the Fahrenheit scale (denoted as °F), and the Kelvin scale (denoted as K), the last of which is predominantly used for scientific purposes by conventions of the International System of Units (SI).
The lowest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which no more thermal energy can be extracted from a body. Experimentally, it can only be approached very closely (100 pK), but not reached, which is recognized in the third law of thermodynamics.
Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, chemistry, Earth science, astronomy, medicine, biology, ecology, material science, metallurgy, mechanical engineering and geography as well as most aspects of daily life.

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2. ### I Relation between change of pressure and temperature in adiabatic process

In case of adiabatic process, we all know that the relation between temperature and pressure and that's given below: P. T(γ/(1-γ)) = Const. therefore, P = Const. T(γ/(γ - 1)) or, ΔP = Const. (γ/(γ - 1)).ΔT(1/(γ - 1)) It's just an attempt to find out the relation. Don't know how much correct I...
3. ### How do we derive the Earth's yearly mean temperature?

I'm new to this. I would like to know how we derive the earth's yearly mean temp. I assume there are thermometers all over...
4. ### The effects of absolute zero temperature

I can visualize gas molecules, contained in a vessel, randomly bouncing into each other. As temperature increases, the collisions occur more rapidly. I suppose this also applies to liquids. I'll guess that a liquid's boiling point is where the molecular collisions become so violent that...
5. ### Engineering Calculate voltage and temperature for this temperature-dependent resistor

Is my work correct?
6. ### B At what distance would a Venus-like planet have a HZ temperature?

Well... that: Please, could you please assist me in obtaining a rough estimate of the distance from the Sun at which a planet resembling Venus or a hypothetical Venus-like planet (for the sake of simplicity) would have a habitable-zone surface temperature? A "back-of-the-envelope" educated...

34. ### I Why is there no frost below a certain temperature?

It is 21°F here this morning and no frost on anything not even car windows. I have noticed this before when it gets cold enough there is no frost. Maybe all the moisture freezes out of the air and there is no moisture to make frost? I don't know? At what temperature is there no frost?
35. ### What is the change in internal energy after two processes?

So the question goes like this: find change in internal energy in process 1->2 using diagram. And offered solutions a)-400J b)400J c)600J d)800J. First I found T1 and T2 using (P*V)/T=R and got T1=24K and T2=72K. Then I found n(number of moles) using PV=nRT and got n1=1mol, n2=1mol. Then I...
36. ### Temperature loss along a duct

Hello, I am looking for assistance regarding temperature losses along a length of pipe with hot air entering one. I need to know the temperature leaving the other end of the pipe. I have been able to calculate the W/m-K (in theory but stopped a i knew the answer wasnt what i needed) losses but...
37. ### A Experiments for temperature dependence of persistent supercurrent?

Imagine, in a mercury ring (superconductivity below Tc=4.15 K) we establish a persistent supercurrent. Then we organize temperature cycles (T-cycles) in the cryostat, from 3 K to 2.5 K and back. According to the BCS theory of superconductivity, the pair density decreases at warming, i.e. a not...
38. ### B High Temperature in Gravitational Fields: Exploring the Possibility?

Sir, heat is proportional to the vibration of atoms. If the vibration of atom is restricted to large extent due to intense gravitational field but has high quantity of total energy in the atom then does it mean it has high tempearture like the stars?
39. ### I Trying to better understand temperature and entropy

If you were to condense all the energy in the universe into a point, wouldn't the temperature be very high, yet the entropy be very low? Also if you were to spread out all of the energy in the universe, wouldn't the temperature be near zero and the entropy be very high? And this makes entropy...
40. ### Highest useful Fahrenheit temperature?

I was watching a video about energy storage, and the subject was stuff that was around 1500° celsius, and for the whole video the graphics kept including Fahrenheit equivalents. Now I use Fahrenheit when checking the weather outside. But that doesn't make 2732F° any more relatable a...
41. ### I Questions about Curie Temperature Characteristics

Is the curie temperature of a ferromagnetic material constant? Are there any factors that will raise it or lower it? For instance, what happens if my piece of iron is already in a strong magnetic field? Is the curie temperate higher, then?
42. ### Triangular cavity thermal radiation simulation

Hi, I'm trying to solve a problem involving radiation in a triangular cavity: As you can see, lengths and emissivities of all surfaces are given. For two of them, the heat flux is known and the temperature has to be found while for the remaining surface it's the other way around. I have the...
43. ### High Temperature and Very High Temperature Materials

A family member shared an article about thermovoltaics being developed at MIT with support from National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). A new heat engine with no moving parts is as efficient as a steam turbine https://news.mit.edu/2022/thermal-heat-engine-0413 The article mentions that the...
44. ### Gas law problem (changing volume, temperature and pressure)

I can’t quite work my head around this question, I am having a difficult time analyzing the question, I can’t seem to make out what the initial and final conditions are would appreciate all the help I could get cheers
45. ### Exceeding the saturation temperature of coolant on the clad for PWR

Hello there. I have been conducting a thermal calculation of a fuel assembly for KLT-40S reactor (a small modular PWR-like reactor installed at the floating nuclear power plant "Akademik Lomonosov" with electric power of 35 MWe.) and obtained some interesting results. It seems that cladding...
46. ### Finding both temperature and the amount of gas added

The volume of the cylinder is ##V=\pi r^2 h=\frac{7\pi}{250}\ m^3## the number of moles is ##n=\frac{15}{16}\ mol## so from ##PV=nRT## we get ##P=\frac{nRT}{V}=25975.5\ Pa##. Now, for the second question, it should be an isochoric process so ##V_2=V_1## and ##P_2=P_1+0.8P_1=\frac{9}{5}P_1## and...
47. ### Changing the Temperature in an MCNP code

Hello everybody. I would like to ask a question; if I change the dimensions and densities and the material number identifier ZAID to a specific temperature. Does MCNP change automatically the volume of the cells? or I have to change the volume of each cell manually and indicate it in the cell...
48. ### I Wave in phonon as "forward and backward" movement vs temperature

My first question here, so maybe not adequate or in the wrong topic, excuse me. I try to understand vibrating light harvesting antenna in biochemistry but it is a question of physics. We talk about a molecule with an emission spectra peak of about 650 nm. In classical physics electrostatic and...
49. ### I Will the upcoming experiment PICO measure kSZ temperature anisotropy?

I know for sure PICO will be measuring polarization anisotropies with high fidelity. In addition, the PICO science paper shows that it will make full-sky Compton-y maps but the plots are mostly limited to l=1000. Will PICO be able to measure kSZ temperature anisotropy at l=3000?
50. ### Finding equilibrium temperature when there are phase changes

If there weren't phase changes occurring I know that the temperature equilibrium would be ##T_e=\frac{m_{ice}c_{ice}T_{ice}+m_{w}c_{w}T_{w}}{m_{ice}c_{ice}+m_{w}c_{w}}##. Now, by repeating the reasoning to get the above formula (##\sum \Delta Q=0##) and adding the phase changes of the water...