Dear all, Please read the text in the attachment. Then...... 1)Explain what is meant by "fix k" and "fixed point of ρ" ? 1a) What does ρ(k) = k mean? 2) How to make the permutation of αβ? 3) What does "re-arranging α so that its top row coincides with the bottom row of β, and remembering that we apply β first" mean and how to do it?? Thank you..