Prediction of volume of solid-liquid solution

In summary: In solvation, the solute molecule is surrounded by more water than it would be if the solvent were pure water. This increases the molecular weight of the solute, and can also change the properties of the solute (like melting point, boiling point, and vapor pressure).In summary, solvation changes the properties of the solute.
  • #1
mishrashubham
599
1
How does the volume of a solid in liquid solution change compared to the volume of the pure volume of the solvent?

If suppose I make a solution with a solid as solute and a liquid as solvent, and for simplification I assume that the solute is completely soluble in the given amount of solvent, is there is any mathematical relation to predict the volume of the resulting solution?

Is it similar to liquid-liquid solutions which show positive and negative deviations?
 
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  • #2
Volumes are not additive, period.

The only sure way is an experiment (or density tables - but they just mean experiment was done by someone else).
 
  • #3
Borek said:
Volumes are not additive, period.

I didn't say they were :D

The only sure way is an experiment (or density tables - but they just mean experiment was done by someone else).
So no mathmatical expression? Note, I was talking specifically about solid-liquid solitions
 
  • #4
mishrashubham said:
I didn't say they were :D

But what you are trying to calculate requires this as an assumption.

Volumes are additive for ideal gases only, which is a rather boring case.

So no mathmatical expression? Note, I was talking specifically about solid-liquid solitions

Doesn't matter if it is solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid, you can expect all kinds of deviations.
 
  • #5
Borek said:
But what you are trying to calculate requires this as an assumption.

It seems that there has been some miscommunication here. Let me make my case clearer.

If suppose I have 1L of pure water in a beaker and to it I add 10 grams of sugar which then completely dissolves. Now I measure the volume of the solution; will I observe a different volume? If yes, can I find out a relation between the change in volume and the say the weight of the sugar added?
 
  • #6
No miscommunication here.

Yes, the final volume will be different from the initial volume of water, but there is no way to calculate it (without density tables).

The most obvious approach calls for assumption that the final volume is a linear combination of volumes (volume additivity) - but there are deviations which make this approach useless. I seem to remember there are more elaborate schemes using partial volumes - but they don't work neither.

My Concentration and Solution Calculator has built in density tables and is flexible enough for such calculations. It tells me if you add 10 g of sucrose to 1L of water you will end with 1006 mL of 1.0021 g/mL solution (assuming 20°C).
 
  • #7
Borek said:
The most obvious approach calls for assumption that the final volume is a linear combination of volumes (volume additivity) - but there are deviations which make this approach useless. I seem to remember there are more elaborate schemes using partial volumes - but they don't work neither.

I'm sorry if I sounded like it, but I didn't expect any linear relationship; I was simply asking if there was one.


Borek said:
Yes, the final volume will be different from the initial volume of water, but there is no way to calculate it (without density tables).

Oh ok got it. Thanks!
 
  • #8
It is possible to calculate in principle. However, this will require you to use Water Models, which is currently a pretty big area of computational chemistry.

The theory of solvation, even today, is not complete. That is because when you dissolve something, the molecules are surrounded by a semi-rigid shell of water called the solvation shell. Depending on the energetics of the solvation shell, you have either phase separation or you have solvation.
 

Related to Prediction of volume of solid-liquid solution

1. What is the purpose of predicting the volume of a solid-liquid solution?

The purpose of predicting the volume of a solid-liquid solution is to understand how the solution will behave under different conditions, such as changes in temperature or pressure. This information is important for various industries, including pharmaceuticals, materials science, and environmental engineering.

2. How is the volume of a solid-liquid solution predicted?

The volume of a solid-liquid solution can be predicted using various mathematical models, such as the ideal solution model or the regular solution model. These models take into account factors such as the physical properties of the solute and solvent, as well as the interactions between them.

3. What are some factors that can affect the accuracy of volume predictions for solid-liquid solutions?

Some factors that can affect the accuracy of volume predictions for solid-liquid solutions include the complexity of the solution, the limitations of the mathematical models used, and experimental errors. Additionally, changes in temperature, pressure, and composition of the solution can also impact the accuracy of predictions.

4. Can volume predictions for solid-liquid solutions be used to determine the solubility of a substance?

Yes, volume predictions for solid-liquid solutions can provide valuable information about the solubility of a substance. By understanding how the volume of a solution changes with varying concentrations of the solute, one can determine the maximum amount of the solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent.

5. How are volume predictions for solid-liquid solutions used in practical applications?

Predictions of volume for solid-liquid solutions are used in various industries, such as in the design and production of pharmaceuticals, development of new materials, and treatment of wastewater. They can also be used in quality control and process optimization to ensure the desired volume and concentration of a solution is achieved.

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