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If a polynomial $P(x)=x^3+Ax^2+Bx+C$ has three real roots at least two of which are distinct, prove that $A^2+B^2+18C>0$.
[sp]Let $a,b,c$ be the three (real) roots of $P(x)$. Then $A = -(a+b+c)$, $B = bc+ca+ab$ and $C = -abc$. So we want to prove that $$(a+b+c)^2 + (bc+ca+ab)^2 + 18abc > 0.$$anemone said:If a polynomial $P(x)=x^3+Ax^2+Bx+C$ has three real roots at least two of which are distinct, prove that $A^2+B^2+18C>0$.
Opalg said:[sp]Let $a,b,c$ be the three (real) roots of $P(x)$. Then $A = -(a+b+c)$, $B = bc+ca+ab$ and $C = -abc$. So we want to prove that $$(a+b+c)^2 + (bc+ca+ab)^2 + 18abc > 0.$$
Let $m = (abc)^{1/3}$ be the geometric mean of $a,b,c$. Since those numbers are not all equal, the AM-GM inequality is strict, so that $a+b+c > 3m$. For the same reason, $bc+ca+ab > 3m^2$. Therefore $$(a+b+c)^2 + (bc+ca+ab)^2 + 18abc > 9m^2 + 9m^4 + 18m^3 = 9m^2(1-m)^2 \geqslant0.$$
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[sp]Good point – I completely overlooked that. However, if one or three of the roots are negative then $C$ will be positive, so the inequality $A^2+B^2+18C>0$ will certainly hold. So the remaining case to deal with is if two of the roots are negative and the third one is positive. I'll have to think about that ... .kaliprasad said:Hello Opalg
Cannot apply AM-GM inequality as a,b,c are not positive
Opalg said:[sp]
Edit:
[sp]The polynomial $x^3 + x^2 - x - 1 = (x+1)^2(x-1)$ has $A=1$, $B=C=-1$, and $A^2 + B^2 + 18C = -16 <0$. So I think that the problem probably needed an extra condition to exclude the case where two of the roots are negative.
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