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June 20, 2008

This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics (Week 266)

John Baez

I'm at this workshop now, and I want to talk about it:

1) Workshop on Categorical Groups, June 16-20, 2008,

Universitat de Barcelona, organized by Pilar Carrasco,

Josep Elgueta, Joachim Kock and Antonio Rodríguez Garzón,

http://mat.uab.cat/~kock/crm/hocat/cat-groups/

But first, the moon of the week - and a bit about that mysterious

fellow Pythagoras, and the Pythagorean tuning system.

Here's a picture of Jupiter's moon Io:

1) Io in True Color, Astronomy Picture of the Day,

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040502.html

It's yellow! - a world covered with sulfur spewed from volcanos,

burning hot inside from intense tidal interactions with Jupiter's

mighty gravitational field... but frigid at the surface.

Last week I talked about something called the "Pythagorean pentagram".

That's a cool name - but it's far from clear who first discovered this

entity, so I started feeling a bit guilty for using it, and I started

wondering what we actually know about Pythagoras or the mathematical

vegetarian cult he supposedly launched. Tim Silverman pointed me to

a scholarly book on the subject:

2) Walter Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism,

Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1972.

It turns out we know very little about Pythagoras: a few grains of

solid fact, surrounded by a huge cloud of stories that grows larger

and larger as we move further and further away from the 6th century

BC, when he lived. This is especially true when it comes to his

contributions to mathematics. The infamous pseudohistorian Eric

Temple Bell begins his book "The Magic of Numbers" as follows:

The hero of our story is Pythagoras. Born to immortality

five hundred years before the Christian era began, this

titanic spirit overshadows western civilization. In some

respects he is more vividly alive today than he was in his

mortal prime twenty-five centuries ago, when he deflected

the momentum of prescientific history toward our own

unimagined scientific and technological culture. Mystic,

philosopher, experimental physicist, and mathematician of

the first rank, Pythagoras dominated the thought of his age

and foreshadowed the scientifi mysticisms of our own.

But, there's no solid evidence for any of this, except perhaps

his interest in mysticism and numerology and the incredible

growth of his legend as the centuries pass. We're not even

sure he proved the "Pythagorean theorem", much less all the

other feats that have been attributed to him. As Burkert explains:

No other branch of history offers such temptations to

conjectural reconstruction as does the history of mathematics.

In mathematics, every detail has its fixed and unalterable place

in a nexus of relations, so that it is often possible, on the

basis of a brief and casual remark, to reconstruct a complicated

theory. It is not surprising, then, that gap in the history of

mathematics that was opened up by a critical study of the evidence

about Pythagoras has been filled by a whole succession of

conjectural supplements.

There's a new book out on Pythagoras:

3) Kitty Ferguson, The Music of Pythagoras: How an Ancient

Brotherhood Cracked the Code of the Universe and Lit the

Path from Antiquity to Outer Space, Walker and Company, 2008.

The subtitle is sensationalistic, exactly the sort of thing that would

make Burkert cringe. But the book is pretty good, and Ferguson is

honest about this: after asking "What do we know about Pythagoras?",

she lists everything we know in one short paragraph, and then

emphasizes: that's *all*.

He was born on the island of Samos sometime around 575 BC. He went

to Croton, a city in what is now southern Italy. He died around 495

BC. We know a bit more - but not much.

It's much easier to learn about the Renaissance "neo-Pythagoreans".

This book is a lot of fun, though too romantic to be truly scholarly:

4) S. K. Heninger, Jr., Touches of Sweet Harmony: Pythagorean Cosmology

and Renaissance Poetics, The Huntington Library, San Marino,

California, 1974.

It seems clear that the Renaissance neo-Pythagoreans, and even the

Greek Pythagoreans, and perhaps even old Pythagoras himself were much

taken with something called the tetractys:

o

o o

o o o

o o o o

To appreciate the tetractys, you have to temporarily throw out

modern scientific thinking and get yourself in the mood of

magical thinking - or "correlative cosmology", which tries to

understand the universe by setting up elaborate correspondences

between this, that, and the other thing. To the Pythagoreans,

the four rows of the tetractys represented the point, line, triangle

and tetrahedron. But the "fourness" of the tetractys also

represented the four classical elements: earth, air, water and fire.

It's fun to compare these early groping attempts to impose order

on the universe to later, less intuitive but far more predictively

powerful schemes like the Periodic Table or the Standard Model.

So, let's take a look!

The Renaissance thinkers liked to organize the four elements using

a chain of analogies running from light to heavy:

fire : air :: air : water :: water : earth

Them also organized them in a diamond, like this:

FIRE

hot dry

AIR EARTH

wet cold

WATER

Sometimes they even put a fifth element in the middle: the

"quintessence", or "aether", from which heavenly bodies were made.

And following Plato's Timaeus dialog, they set up an analogy like

this:

fire tetrahedron

air octahedron

water icosahedron

earth cube

quintessence dodecahedron

This is cute! Fire feels pointy and sharp like tetrahedra, while

water rolls like round icosahedra, and earth packs solidly like

cubes. Dodecahedra are different than all the rest, made of

pentagons, just as you might expect of "quintessence". And

air... well, I've never figured out what air has to do with

octahedra. You win some, you lose some - and in correlative

cosmology, a discrepancy here and there doesn't falsify your ideas.

The tetractys also took the Pythagoreans in other strange directions.

For example, who said this?

"What you suppose is four is really ten..."

A modern-day string theorist talking to Lee Smolin about the dimension

of spacetime? No! Around 150 AD, the rhetorician Lucian of Samosata

attributed this quote to Pythagoras, referring to the tetratkys and the

fact that it has 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10 dots. This somehow led the

Pythagoreans to think the number 10 represented "perfection". If

there turn out to be 4 visible dimensions of spacetime together with

6 curled-up ones explaining the gauge group U(1) x SU(2) x SU(3),

maybe they were right.

Pythagorean music theory is a bit more comprehensible: along with

astronomy, music is one of the first places where mathematical

physics made serious progress. The Greeks, and the Babylonians

before them, knew that nice-sounding intervals in music correspond

to simple rational numbers. For example, they knew that the octave

corresponds to a ratio of 2:1. We'd now call this a ratio of

*frequencies*; one can get into some interesting scholarly arguments

about when and how well the Greeks knew that sound was a *vibration*,

but never mind - read Burkert's book if you're interested.

Whatever these ratios meant, the Greeks also knew that a fifth

corresponds to a ratio of 3:2, and a fourth to 4:3.

By the way, if you don't know about musical intervals like

"fourths" and "fifths", don't feel bad. I won't explain them

now, but you can learn about them and hear them here:

5) Brian Capleton, Musical intervals,

http://www.amarilli.co.uk/music/intervs.htm

and then practice recognizing them:

6) Ricci Adams, Interval ear trainer,

http://www.musictheory.net/trainers/html/id90_en.html

If you nose around Capleton's website, you'll see he's quite

a Pythagorean mystic himself!

Anyway, at some moment, lost in history by now, people figured

out that the octave could be divided into a fourth and a fifth:

2/1 = 4/3 × 3/2

And later, I suppose, they defined a whole tone to be the

difference, or really ratio, between a fifth and a fourth:

(3/2)/(4/3) = 9/8

So, when you go up one whole tone in the Pythagorean tuning system,

the higher note should vibrate 9/8 as fast as the lower one. If

you try this on a modern keyboard, it looks like after going up 6

whole tones you've gone up an octave. But in fact if you buy the

Pythagorean definition of whole tone, 6 whole tones equals

(9/8)^6 = 531441 / 262144 = 2.027286530...

which is, umm, not quite 2!

Another way to put it is that if you go up 12 fifths, you've

*almost* gone up 7 octaves, but not quite: the so-called circle

of fifths doesn't quite close, since

(3/2)^{12} / 2^7 = 531441 / 524288 = 1.01264326...

This annoying little discrepancy is called the "Pythagorean comma".

This sort of discrepancy is an unavoidable fact of mathematics.

Our ear likes to hear frequency ratios that are nice simple

rational numbers, and we'd also like a scale where the notes are

evenly spaced - but we can't have both. Why? Because you can't

divide an octave into equal parts that are rational ratios of

frequencies. Why? Because a nontrivial nth root of 2 can never

be rational.

So, irrational numbers are lurking in any attempt to create an

equally spaced (or as they say, "equal-tempered") tuning system.

You might imagine this pushed the Pythagoreans to confront

irrational numbers. This case has been made by the classicist

Tannery, but Burkert doesn't believe it: there's no written

evidence suggesting it.

You could say the existence of irrational numbers is

the root of all evil in music. Indeed, the diminished fifth

in an equal tempered scale is called the "diabolus in musica",

or "devil in music", and it has a frequency ratio equal to

the square root of 2.

Or, you could say that this built-in conflict is the spice of

life! It makes it impossible for harmony to be perfect and

therefore dull.

Anyway, Pythagorean tuning is not equal-tempered: it's based

on making lots of fifths equal to exactly 3/2. So, all the

frequency ratios are fractions built from the numbers 2 and 3.

But, some of them are nicer than others:

first = 1/1

second = 9/8

third = 81/64

fourth = 4/3

fifth = 3/2

sixth = 27/16

seventh = 243/128

octave = 2/1

As you can see, the third, sixth and seventh are not very nice:

they're complicated fractions, so they don't sound great.

They're all a bit sharp compared to the following tuning system,

which is a form of "just intonation":

first = 1/1

second = 9/8

third = 5/4

fourth = 4/3

fifth = 3/2

sixth = 5/3

seventh = 15/8

octave = 2/1

Just intonation brings in fractions involving the number 5, which we

might call the "quintessence" of music: we need it to get a

nice-sounding third. A long and interesting tale could be told about

this tuning system - but not now. Instead, let's just see how the

third, sixth and seventh differ:

In just intonation the third is 5/4 = 1.25, but in Pythagorean

tuning it's 81/64 = 1.265625. The Pythagorean system is about

1.25% sharp.

In just intonation the sixth is 5/3 = 1.6666.., but in Pythagorean

tuning it's 81/64 = 1.6875. The Pythagorean system is about 0.7%

sharp.

In just intonation the seventh is 15/8 = 1.875, but in Pythagorean

tuning it's 243/128 = 1.8984375. The Pythagorean system is about

1.25% sharp.

Here you can learn more about Pythagorean tuning, and hear it in

action:

7) Margo Schulter, Pythagorean tuning and medieval polyphony,

http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/harmony/pyth.html

8) Reginald Bain, A Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale,

http://www.music.sc.edu/fs/bain/atmi02/pst/index.html

There's also a murky relation between Pythagorean tuning and

something called the "Platonic Lambda". This is a certain

way of labelling the edges of the tetractys by powers of 2 on

one side, and powers of 3 on the other:

1

2 3

4 9

8 27

I can't help wanting to flesh it out like this, so going down

and to the left is multiplication by 2, while going down and

to the right is multiplication by 3:

1

2 3

4 6 9

8 12 18 27

So, I was pleased when in Heninger's book I saw the numbers

on the bottom row in a plate from a 1563 edition of "De

Natura Rerum", a commentary on Plato's Timaeus written by

the Venerable Bede sometime around 700 AD!

In this plate, the elements fire, air, water and earth are

labelled by the numbers 8, 12, 18 and 27. This makes the

aforementioned analogies:

fire : air :: air : water :: water : earth

into strict mathematical proportions:

8 : 12 :: 12 : 18 :: 18 : 27

Cute! Of course it doesn't do much to help us understand

fire, air, earth and water. But, it goes to show how people

have been struggling a long time to find mathematical patterns

in nature. Most of these attempts don't work. Occasionally

we get lucky... and over the millennia, these scraps of luck

added up to the impressive theories we have today.

Next: the categorical groups workshop here in Barcelona!

A "categorical group", also called a "2-group", is a category

that's been equipped with structures mimicking those of a group:

a product, identity, and inverses, satisfying the usual laws

either "strictly" as equations or "weakly" as natural isomorphisms.

Pretty much anything people do with groups can also be done with

2-groups. That's a lot of stuff - so there's a lot of scope for

exploration! There's a powerful group of algebraists in Spain engaged

in this exploration, so it makes sense to have this workshop here.

Let me say a little about some of the talks we've had so far.

I'll mainly give links, instead of explaining stuff in detail.

On Monday, I kicked off the proceedings with this talk:

9) John Baez, Classifying spaces for topological 2-groups,

http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/barcelona/

Just as we can try to classify principal bundles over some

space with any fixed group as gauge group, we can try to

classify "principal 2-bundles" with a given "gauge 2-group".

It's a famous old theorem that for any topological group G,

we can find a space BG such that principal G-bundles over any

mildly nice space X are classified by maps from X to BG.

(Homotopic maps correspond to isomorphic bundles.) A similar

result holds for topological 2-groups!

Indeed, Baas Bökstedt and Kro did something much more general

for topological *2-categories*:

10) Nils Baas, Marcel Bökstedt and Tore Kro, 2-Categorical

K-theories, available as arXiv:math/0612549.

Just as a group is a category with one object and with all

morphisms being invertible, a 2-group is a 2-group with one

object and all morphisms and 2-morphisms invertible. But

the 2-group case is worthy of some special extra attention,

so Danny Stevenson studied that with a little help from me:

11) John Baez and Danny Stevenson, The classifying space of

a topological 2-group, http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.3843

and that's what I talked about. If you're also interested in

classifying spaces of 2-categories that aren't topological,

just "discrete", you should try these:

12) John Duskin, Simplicial matrices and the nerves of weak

n-categories I: nerves of bicategories, available at

http://www.tac.mta.ca/tac/volumes/9/n10/9-10abs.html

13) Manuel Bullejos and A. Cegarra, On the geometry of

2-categories and their classifying spaces, available at

http://www.ugr.es/~bullejos/geometryampl.pdf

14) Manuel Bullejos, Emilio Faro and Victor Blanco,

A full and faithful nerve for 2-categories, Applied

Categorical Structures 13 (2005), 223-233. Also

available as arXiv:math/0406615.

On Monday afternoon, Bruce Bartlett spoke on a geometric

way to understand representations and "2-representations"

of ordinary finite groups. You can see his talk here, and

also an version which has less material, explained in a

more elementary way:

15) Bruce Bartlett, The geometry of unitary 2-representations

of finite groups and their 2-characters, talk at the

Categorical Groups workshop in Barcelona, June 16, 2008,

http://brucebartlett.postgrad.shef.ac.uk/research/Barcelona.pdf [Broken]

Bruce Bartlett, The geometry of 2-representations of finite

groups, talk at the Max Kelly Conference, Cape Town, 2008,

http://brucebartlett.postgrad.shef.ac.uk/research/MaxKellyTalk.pdf [Broken]

Both talks are based on this paper:

16) Bruce Bartlett, The geometry of unitary 2-representations

of finite groups and their 2-characters, draft available at

http://brucebartlett.postgrad.shef.ac.uk/research/Max%20Kelly%20Proceedings.pdf [Broken]

The first big idea here is that the category of representations

of a finite group G is equivalent to some category where an object

X is a Kaehler manifold on which G acts, equipped with an

equivariant U(1) bundle. A morphism from X to Y in

this category is not just the obvious sort of map; instead, it's

diagram of maps shaped like this:

S

/ \

/ \

F/ \G

/ \

v v

X Y

This is called a "span". So, we're seeing a very nice extension of

the Tale of Groupoidification, which began in "week247" and continued

up to "week257", when it jumped over to my seminar.

But Bruce doesn't stop here! He then *categorifies* this whole

story, replacing representations of G on Hilbert spaces by

representations on 2-Hilbert spaces, and replacing U(1) bundles

by U(1) gerbes. This is quite impressive, with nice applications

to a topological quantum field theory called the Dijkgraaf-Witten

model.

Next, to handle the TQFT called Chern-Simons theory, Bruce plans to

replace the finite group G by a compact Lie group. Another, stranger

direction he could go is to replace G by a finite 2-group. Then he'd

make contact with the categorified Dijkgraaf-Witten TQFT studied in

these papers:

17) David Yetter, TQFT's from homotopy 2-types, Journal of Knot

Theory and its Ramifications 2 (1993), 113-123.

18) Timothy Porter and Vladimir Turaev, Formal homotopy quantum

field theories, I: Formal maps and crossed C-algebras, available as

arXiv:math/0512032.

Timothy Porter and Vladimir Turaev, Formal homotopy quantum field

theories, II: Simplicial formal maps, in Categories in Algebra,

Geometry and Mathematical Physics, eds. A. Davydov et al, Contemp.

Math 431, AMS, Providence Rhode Island, 2007, 375-403. Also available

as arXiv:math/0512034.

19) João Faria Martins and Timothy Porter, On Yetter's invariant and

an extension of the Dijkgraaf-Witten invariant to categorical groups,

avilable as arXiv:math/0608484.

As the last paper explains, we can also think of this TQFT as a field

theory where the "field" on a spacetime X is a map

f: X -> BG

where BG is the classifying space of the 2-group G.

Given all this, it's natural to contemplate a further generalization

of Bruce's work where G is a Lie 2-group. Unfortunately, Lie 2-groups

don't have many representations on 2-Hilbert space of the sort I've

secretly been talking about so far: that is, finite-dimensional ones.

So we may, perhaps, need to ponder representations of Lie 2-groups

on infinite-dimensional 2-Hilbert spaces.

Luckily, that's just what Derek Wise spoke about on Wednesday morning!

His talk also included some pictures with intriguing relations to

the pictures in Bruce's talk. You can see the slides here:

Derek Wise, Representations of 2-groups on higher Hilbert spaces,

http://math.ucdavis.edu/~derek/talks/barcelona2008.pdf

They make a nice introduction to a paper he's writing with Aristide

Baratin, Laurent Freidel and myself. Our work uses ideas like

measurable fields of Hilbert spaces, which are already important for

understanding infinite-dimensional unitary group representations.

But if you're less fond of analysis, jump straight to pages 20, 23

and 25, where he gives a geometrical interpretation of these

infinite-dimensional representations, along with the intertwining

operators between them... and the "2-intertwining operators" between

*those*.

This work relies heavily on the work of Crane, Sheppeard and Yetter,

cited in "week210" - so check out that, too!

There's much more to say, but I'm running out of steam, so I'll

just mention a few more talks: Enrico Vitale's talk on categorified

homological algebra, and the talks by David Roberts and Aurora del

Río on the fundamental 2-group of a topological space.

To set these in their proper perspective, it's good to recall

the periodic table of n-categories, mentioned in "week49":

k-tuply monoidal n-categories

n = 0 n = 1 n = 2

k = 0 sets categories 2-categories

k = 1 monoids monoidal monoidal

categories 2-categories

k = 2 commutative braided braided

monoids monoidal monoidal

categories 2-categories

k = 3 " " symmetric sylleptic

monoidal monoidal

categories 2-categories

k = 4 " " " " symmetric

monoidal

2-categories

k = 5 " " " " " "

The idea here is that an (n+k)-category with only one j-morphism for j

< k acts like an n-category with extra bells and whistles: a "k-tuply

monoidal n-category". This idea has not been fully established, and

there are some problems with naive formulations of it, but it's bound

to be right when properly understood, and it's useful for anyone trying

to understand the big picture of mathematics.

Now, an n-category with everything invertible is called an "n-groupoid".

Such a thing is believed to be essentially the same as a "homotopy

n-type", meaning a nice space, like a CW complex, with vanishing

homotopy groups above the nth - where we count homotopy equivalent

spaces as the same. If we accept this, the n-groupoid version of the

Periodic Table can be understood using homotopy theory. It looks like

this:

k-tuply monoidal n-groupoids

n = 0 n = 1 n = 2

k = 0 sets groupoids 2-groupoids

k = 1 groups 2-groups 3-groups

k = 2 abelian braided braided

groups 2-groups 3-groups

k = 3 " " symmetric sylleptic

2-groups 3-groups

k = 4 " " " " symmetric

3-groups

k = 5 " " " " " "

Most of this workshop has focused on 2-groups. But abelian groups are

especially interesting and nice, and there's a huge branch of math

called "homological algebra" that studies categories similar to the

category of abelian groups. These are called "abelian categories".

In an abelian category, you've got direct sums, kernels, cokernels,

exact sequences, chain complexes and so on - all things you're used to

in the category of abelian groups!

Can we categorify all this stuff? Yes - and that's what Enrico Vitale

is busy doing! He started by telling us how all these ideas generalize

from abelian groups to symmetric 2-groups, and how they change.

For example, besides the "kernel" and "cokernel", we also need extra

concepts. The reason is that the kernel of a homomorphism says if the

homomorphism is one-to-one, while its cokernel says us if it's onto.

Functions can be nice in two basic ways: they can be one-to-one, or

onto. But because categories have an extra level, functors between

them can be nice in *three* ways, called "faithful", "full" and

"essentially surjective". So, we need more than just the kernel and

cokernel to say what's going on.

The concepts of exact sequence and chain complex get subtler, too.

You can read about these things here:

20) Aurora Del Río, Martínez-Moreno and Enrico Vitale, Chain

complexes of symmetric categorical groups, JPAA 196 (2005),

279-312. Also available at

http://www.math.ucl.ac.be/membres/vitale/SCG-compl3.pdf [Broken]

21) Pilar Carrasco, Antonio Garzon and Enrico Vitale, On

categorical crossed modules, TAC 16 (2006), 85-618, available as

http://tac.mta.ca/tac/volumes/16/22/16-22abs.html

By generalizing properties of the category of abelian groups, people

invented the concept of "abelian category". Similarly, Vitale told us

a definition of "2-abelian 2-category", obtained by generalizing

properties of the 2-category of symmetric 2-groups. I believe this is

discussed here:

22) Mathieu Dupont: Catégories abéliennes en dimension 2,

Ph.D. Thesis, Université Catholique de Louvain, 2008.

Mathieu Dupont is defending his dissertation on June 30th. I hope he

puts it on the arXiv after that.

All this stuff gets even more elaborate as we move to n-groups for

higher n. To some extent this is the subject of homotopy theory, but

one also wants a more explicitly algebraic approach. See for example:

23) Giuseppe Metere: The ziqqurath of exact sequences of n-groupoids,

Ph.D. Thesis, Università di Milano, 2008. Also available at

arXiv:0802.0800.

The relation between 2-groups and topology is made explicit using

the concept of "fundamental 2-group". Just as every space equipped

with a basepoint has a fundamental group, it has a fundamental 2-group.

And for a homotopy 2-type, this 2-group captures *everything* about the

space - at least if we count homotopy equivalent spaces as the same.

David Roberts prepared an excellent talk about the fundamental

2-group of a space for this workshop. Unfortunately, he was unable

to come. Luckily, you can still see his talk:

24) David Roberts, Fundamental 2-groups and 2-covering spaces,

http://golem.ph.utexas.edu/category/2008/06/fundamental_2groups_and_2cover.html

The basic principle of Galois theory says that covering spaces of

a connected space are classified by subgroups of its fundamental

group. Here Roberts explains how "2-covering spaces" of a connected

space are classified by "sub-2-groups" of its fundamental 2-group!

Aurora del Río spoke on fundamental 2-groups and their application

to K-theory. Whenever we have a fibration of pointed spaces

F -> E -> B

we get a long exact sequence of homotopy groups

... -> pi_n(F) -> pi_n(E) -> pi_n(B) -> pi_{n-1}(F) -> ...

This is a standard tool in algebraic topology; I sketched how it

works in "week151".

Now, the nth homotopy group of a space X, written pi_n(X), is just the

fundamental group of the (n-1)-fold loop space of X. So, the Spanish

categorical group experts define the nth "homotopy 2-group" of a space

X to be the fundamental 2-group of an iterated loop space of X. And,

it turns out that any fibration of spaces gives a long exact sequence

of homotopy 2-groups!

I was surprised by this, but in retrospect I shouldn't have been.

Any fibration gives a "long exact sequence of iterated loop spaces":

... -> L^n F -> L^n E -> L^n B -> L^{n-1}F -> ...

So, as soon as we have a definition of "fundamental n-groupoids" and

long exact sequences of n-groupoids, and can show that taking the

fundamental n-groupoid preserves exactness, we can get a long exact

sequence of fundamental n-groupoids. If we simply define a

fundamental n-groupoid to *be* a homotopy n-type, this should not be

hard.

Quillen set up modern algebraic K-theory by defining the K-groups

of a ring R to be the homotopy groups of a certain space called

BGL(R)+. Aurora del Río defined the K-2-groups of a ring in the same

way, but using homotopy 2-groups! And then she went ahead and

studied them...

I'll try to convince her to put the slides of her talk online,

so you can see them. In the meantime, try these papers of hers:

25) Antonio Garzón and Aurora del Río, Low-dimensional cohomology

of categorical groups, Cahiers de Topologie et Géométrie Différentielle

Catégoriques, 44 (2003), 247-280. Available at

http://www.numdam.org/numdam-bin/fitem?id=CTGDC_2003__44_4_247_0 [Broken]

This one gets into K-theory:

26) Antonio Garzón and Aurora del Río, The Whitehead categorical

group of derivations, Georgian Mathematical Journal 09 (2002),

709-721. Available at

http://www.heldermann.de/GMJ/GMJ09/GMJ094/gmj09053.htm [Broken]

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# This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics (Week 266)

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