What happens first -- Sun Red Giant or Andromeda collision?

In summary, the Andromeda-Milky Way collision is a complex event with uncertain timing and outcomes. Based on current calculations, there is a 50% chance that the Solar System will be swept out three times farther from the galactic core and a 12% chance that it will be ejected from the new galaxy. However, excluding planetary engineering, the Earth will become too hot for liquid water to exist in about 3.75 billion years due to the increasing luminosity of the Sun. Some sources suggest that the oceans may be vaporized in about 1 billion years, but this is not a precise calculation.
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What happens first Sun Red Giant or Andromeda collision?
 
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This is difficult to answer because neither has a timestamp. The collision is more diffusion, and long before the sun becomes actually a red giant, it is way too hot for life on earth. So what should we take as time: first stars of two galaxies are closer than how many lightyears, and sun swallows Mercury?
 
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By chance, there is a section in Wikipedia that directly addresses your question. It seems that the bottom line is "by the time the two galaxies collide, the surface of the Earth will have already become far too hot for liquid water to exist, ending all terrestrial life; that is currently estimated to occur in about 3.75 billion years "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda–Milky_Way_collision

Fate of the Solar System[edit]​

See also: Formation and evolution of the Solar System § Galactic collision and planetary disruption
Two scientists with the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics stated that when, and even whether, the two galaxies collide will depend on Andromeda's transverse velocity.[3] Based on current calculations they predict a 50% chance that in a merged galaxy, the Solar System will be swept out three times farther from the galactic core than its current distance.[3] They also predict a 12% chance that the Solar System will be ejected from the new galaxy sometime during the collision.[15][16] Such an event would have no adverse effect on the system and the chances of any sort of disturbance to the Sun or planets themselves may be remote.[15][16]

Excluding planetary engineering, by the time the two galaxies collide, the surface of the Earth will have already become far too hot for liquid water to exist, ending all terrestrial life; that is currently estimated to occur in about 3.75 billion years due to gradually increasing luminosity of the Sun (it will have risen by 35–40% above its current luminosity).[17][18]
 
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anorlunda said:
By chance, there is a section in Wikipedia that directly addresses your question. It seems that the bottom line is "by the time the two galaxies collide, the surface of the Earth will have already become far too hot for liquid water to exist, ending all terrestrial life; that is currently estimated to occur in about 3.75 billion years "
I've seen an astronomer on tv last night who said that the oceans will be vaporized in about 1 billion years from now. However, it was a rather informal remark, not an exact calculation.
 
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Related to What happens first -- Sun Red Giant or Andromeda collision?

1. What is a Sun Red Giant?

A Sun Red Giant is a stage in the life cycle of a star where it has expanded and become much larger and brighter. This occurs when the star has burned through most of its hydrogen fuel and begins to fuse helium, causing it to expand.

2. How does a Sun become a Red Giant?

A Sun becomes a Red Giant when it has used up most of its hydrogen fuel and starts to fuse helium. This fusion process causes the star to expand, becoming much larger and brighter. The outer layers of the star become cooler, giving it a reddish appearance.

3. When will the Sun become a Red Giant?

The Sun is currently in its main sequence phase and is expected to become a Red Giant in about 5 billion years. This is when it will have used up most of its hydrogen fuel and begin to fuse helium, causing it to expand and become a Red Giant.

4. What is the Andromeda collision?

The Andromeda collision refers to the predicted collision between our Milky Way galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. It is estimated to occur in about 4.5 billion years and will result in the two galaxies merging to form a larger elliptical galaxy.

5. Which will happen first, the Sun becoming a Red Giant or the Andromeda collision?

The Sun becoming a Red Giant will happen first, in about 5 billion years. The Andromeda collision is estimated to occur in about 4.5 billion years. However, both events are still far off in the future and will not affect us in our lifetimes.

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