Why do the fundamental forces have different ranges?

In summary, the strong nuclear force has a short range due to the carrier particle, gluon, interacting with itself. This results in quark confinement and screening of color charge, leading to a residual strong force mediated by massive pions. This is in contrast to gravity and electromagnetism, which have an infinite range due to their carrier particles, graviton and photon, having zero mass. The weak force also has a short range due to its bosons having relatively large mass and decaying quickly.
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Surya97
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How come gravity and electromagnetism have an infinite range, while the strong nuclear force dies out quickly? I understand that the weak force's bosons, the W+, W- and Z (neutral), have relatively large mass, and decay quickly, while the photon and the graviton (theoretical carrier of gravity) both have zero mass (we have now proved the existence of gravitational waves), giving both an infinite range. However, the strong force's carrier, the gluon, also theoretically has zero mass (experimentally, the maximum mass bound is very low). So how come the strong force turns from attractive to repulsive to nonexistent after the distance is increased (QCD), rather than going on forever?
 
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Unlike photons (and presumably gravitons), gluons interact with themselves. This leads to quark confinement and screening of colour charge. A baryon is color neutral just as atom is electrically neutral despite its charged constituents. There is a residual strong force that may be thought of as mediated by pions. This has a short range due to pions being massive.
 
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1. What are the four fundamental forces of nature?

The four fundamental forces of nature are gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force. They are responsible for all interactions between particles in the universe.

2. How do these forces differ from each other?

Each of the fundamental forces has different properties and ranges. Gravity is the weakest force but has an infinite range, while the strong nuclear force is the strongest but has a very short range. Electromagnetism has a medium strength and range, and the weak nuclear force is the second weakest and also has a short range.

3. How do these forces work together to create the world we see?

These forces work together in different ways to govern the behavior of particles. Gravity keeps planets in orbit, electromagnetism holds atoms together, and the strong nuclear force keeps protons and neutrons together in the nucleus. The weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay.

4. Can these forces be unified into one theory?

Many scientists believe that these four fundamental forces can be unified into one theory, often referred to as the "Theory of Everything." However, this theory has not yet been fully developed and is still a topic of ongoing research and debate.

5. How do scientists study the range of these fundamental forces?

Scientists study the range of fundamental forces by conducting experiments and making observations at different scales. For example, the strength of gravity can be measured by observing the motion of planets and stars, while the range of the strong nuclear force can be studied by examining the structure of atomic nuclei.

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