Why is the miRNA expression increasing?

In summary, the increase in miRNA expression is due to various factors such as changes in cellular environment, genetic mutations, and external stimuli. This can have both positive and negative effects on cellular processes, as it can regulate gene expression and impact cellular functions such as growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Environmental factors such as diet, pollution, and stress can also influence miRNA expression. The exact mechanism for the increase in miRNA expression is still being studied, but it involves factors such as transcription factors, epigenetic modifications, and RNA processing. Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been linked to the development of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders, highlighting the importance of understanding its role in disease development.
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As presented in Fig. 3A, the expression of miR-141 was increased in the miR-141 mimic transfection group and the increase in miR-141 led to a significantly impaired insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose (P<0.05; Fig. 3B)
Source: paper

When the cells were transfected with miRNA-mimic it increased the miRNA expression. Is this increase due to the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates secondary miRNAs?
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AFAIK, mouse or humans don't have RDRPs to amplify small RNAs. It's likely that the RT-qPCR is detecting the miRNA mimics in addition to the endogenous miRNA.
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Related to Why is the miRNA expression increasing?

1. Why is miRNA expression increasing in certain diseases?

There are several possible reasons for increased miRNA expression in diseases. One theory is that the body may produce more miRNA in response to stress or injury. Another possibility is that certain miRNAs may be involved in regulating gene expression and can become dysregulated in diseases.

2. Can environmental factors affect miRNA expression?

Yes, studies have shown that environmental factors such as diet, pollutants, and stress can influence miRNA expression. These factors can alter the levels of specific miRNAs, which may contribute to the development of diseases.

3. What is the role of miRNA in cancer?

MiRNAs have been found to play a significant role in cancer development and progression. They can act as either tumor suppressors, inhibiting cancer growth, or oncogenes, promoting cancer growth. Changes in miRNA expression have also been linked to drug resistance in cancer treatment.

4. How does miRNA expression change with age?

Research has shown that miRNA expression levels can change with age. Some miRNAs have been found to decrease with age, while others increase. These changes in miRNA expression may contribute to the aging process and age-related diseases.

5. Can miRNA expression be used as a diagnostic tool?

Yes, miRNA expression can potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for certain diseases. Studies have shown that specific miRNAs are dysregulated in various diseases, and measuring their expression levels can aid in diagnosis. However, more research is needed before miRNA expression can be used routinely in clinical settings.

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