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Black hole anatomy

by bill alsept
Tags: anatomy, black, hole
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bill alsept
#37
Mar5-12, 03:57 PM
P: 124
Quote Quote by zhermes View Post
The nature of the material within the event horizon doesn't matter in general relativity.
Mabey not in GR but it does matter to the anatomy of black holes and the point of this conversation. GR has trouble explaining some things and obviously black holes are one of them.



Quote Quote by zhermes View Post
There is no such thing as 'a particle so much smaller than anything else'---
How can anyone say there are no particles smaller. Didn,t they original name the atom becuase they thought it could not be divided anymore? We know quarks are made from something smaller, maybe that will be the next think we discover.
zhermes
#38
Mar5-12, 04:20 PM
P: 1,261
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
Mabey not in GR but it does matter to the anatomy of black holes and the point of this conversation. GR has trouble explaining some things and obviously black holes are one of them.
I've already told you the answer according to string theory; nothing else applies.

Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
How can anyone say there are no particles smaller. Didn,t they original name the atom becuase they thought it could not be divided anymore? We know quarks are made from something smaller, maybe that will be the next think we discover.
Quarks are not made of something smaller---they are fundamental particles. Fundamental particles are points---i.e. no finite size--and thus, again, nothing can be smaller. Additionally the concept of 'size' of a particle doesn't really apply in this regime (unless you're talking about string theory), and as I said before, in that case you have a planck-sized mass at the center of the (schwarschild) black-hole.
bill alsept
#39
Mar7-12, 11:33 PM
P: 124
Quote Quote by zhermes View Post
I've already told you the answer according to string theory; nothing else applies.
I'm sorry but that sounds to much like a religious answer. The nature of the material within the event horizon would matter. If like you say it doesn't matter to GR then who cares. It’s still there and would matters to everything else.

Why do black holes need to be so mysterious? Why cant they just be like every other mass. Just because g has an escape velocity faster than light who cares. Everything is still there we just can't see it. If we ever find a way to see black holes I would bet that the body of the black hole has an actual diameter and that its growing.


Quote Quote by zhermes View Post
Quarks are not made of something smaller---they are fundamental particles. Fundamental particles are points---i.e. no finite size--and thus, again, nothing can be smaller. Additionally the concept of 'size' of a particle doesn't really apply in this regime (unless you're talking about string theory), and as I said before, in that case you have a planck-sized mass at the center of the (schwarschild) black-hole.
You can't say quarks are fundamental without proof. We may one day find that there are many smaller levels. I think one clue that quarks are made of smaller parts is that quarks react with other quarks. Whatever force they use to accomplish this may come from within each one so they could have some sub parts or moving parts to cause these forces, fields or phenomenon. Just a thought
zhermes
#40
Mar7-12, 11:36 PM
P: 1,261
Consult the PF Forums rules on overly speculative posts. The burden is not on me to prove the established canon, nor to disprove your personal theory of the universe.
twofish-quant
#41
Mar7-12, 11:50 PM
P: 6,863
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
You can't say quarks are fundamental without proof.
Mathematicians deal with proof. Physicists deal with evidence.

The reason we know that protons are not point particles is that if you ram two protons together you get scattering angles that are consistent with sub-structure. If you ram quarks and electrons together, you get scattering that is consistent with point particles.

Also thermodynamics and QM provide some limits on the types of viable preon models.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preon

Essentially if quarks had substructure, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle would cause enough momentum uncertainty to be larger than the rest mass of the particle. There are also thermodynamic limits. If you have substructure you change the statistics of matter and so that changes its thermal properties.

There are ways of getting around those limits, but right now the experimental data is consistent with non-substructure and there are some very strong limits as to what theories are consistent with observations.

We may one day find that there are many smaller levels.
We've looked. We haven't found anything, and we have evidence that there is nothing there to be found.

I think one clue that quarks are made of smaller parts is that quarks react with other quarks. Whatever force they use to accomplish this may come from within each one so they could have some sub parts or moving parts to cause these forces, fields or phenomenon. Just a thought
Look up "preon"
twofish-quant
#42
Mar8-12, 12:30 AM
P: 6,863
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
How can it collapse further and why does it have to? Can't a black hole be so dense that there is no space left inside? An area filled 100% complete with the smallest partials the universe has to offer. There would be no more area to collapse to.
Won't work. What happens is that as you increase the gravity, the number of possible energy states for the particles increase so that the pressure necessary to keep the particles from collapsing disappears.

This is a general argument that works with any set of particles.

I realize my original question most likely cannot be answered because we don’t know how small those first particles are or how many have accumulated in the black hole.
Doesn't matter, the smaller the particles, the faster the collapse. As long as special relativity is correct, then given enough gravity, things are unstable to collapse. If special relativity is wrong, then you tell me what the rules are.
twofish-quant
#43
Mar8-12, 12:31 AM
P: 6,863
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
I understand pressure is required to supports a balloons surface but not so simple on a bowling ball. Why is pressure needed on a complely solid object?
Pressure is what makes a solid object a solid.
bill alsept
#44
Mar8-12, 12:32 AM
P: 124
Quote Quote by twofish-quant View Post
Mathematicians deal with proof. Physicists deal with evidence.

The reason we know that protons are not point particles is that if you ram two protons together you get scattering angles that are consistent with sub-structure. If you ram quarks and electrons together, you get scattering that is consistent with point particles.

Also thermodynamics and QM provide some limits on the types of viable preon models.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preon

Essentially if quarks had substructure, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle would cause enough momentum uncertainty to be larger than the rest mass of the particle. There are also thermodynamic limits. If you have substructure you change the statistics of matter and so that changes its thermal properties.

There are ways of getting around those limits, but right now the experimental data is consistent with non-substructure and there are some very strong limits as to what theories are consistent with observations.



We've looked. We haven't found anything, and we have evidence that there is nothing there to be found.



Look up "preon"
Thank You for good answers.
twofish-quant
#45
Mar8-12, 12:35 AM
P: 6,863
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
Maybe the smallest particles in the universe only have space between them because they are each liberated and going through some repeated cycles of their own. When they are finally corralled and pushed together to the point they can no longer be liberated or move they loose any effect or phenomena they caused before.
That makes things worse.

The reason that solids are solids is because you've filled up all of the available energy states and to kick a particle into a higher energy state takes a lot of energy. If you create additional particles, then you increase the number of energy states, and things become softer.

One way of thinking about this is imagine getting hit by a brick. And getting hit by a pile of sand. Because there are more ways that the sand can move, it's a lot softer, and this sort of thing happens at the subatomic level.

Could it even be possible that a black hole goes completely cold at the center? And would need no support again leading to the idea that the singularity may have a diameter instead of being a point?
When you have no evidence then anything is possible. It's possible that the black hole goes completely cold. It's also possible that the singularity turns into trained dancing penguins. When you don't know, you don't know.
twofish-quant
#46
Mar8-12, 12:39 AM
P: 6,863
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
Sorry, I am not trying to beat a dead horse here but I am talking about after neutron degeneracy pressure of the neutron star and any other stages of collapse a body of mass may go through including the stage of converting to a black hole. Which I think is the same as all the other stages where the escape velocity just rises another notch. In this case it rises above the speed of light. But after that stage what stages are there and eventually you get to a particle that are so much smaller than anything else. There would be no other place to collapse to.
Small particles makes things collapse faster. The reason things stop collapsing is that you've filled up all of the energy states. Once you increase gravity, the energy levels change so that you have empty stops that open up. If you create new particles, the number of energy states increases even more so things will collapse faster.
twofish-quant
#47
Mar8-12, 12:50 AM
P: 6,863
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
Why do black holes need to be so mysterious? Why cant they just be like every other mass.
I don't think that black holes are mysterious. The singularity in the middle of a black hole, on the other hand.....

Just because g has an escape velocity faster than light who cares. Everything is still there we just can't see it. If we ever find a way to see black holes I would bet that the body of the black hole has an actual diameter and that its growing.
There's a basic problem.

Suppose you have an infinitely stiff stick. I push the stick on earth, then instantly the end of the stick on the moon moves. Uh. Oh. I just transmitted information faster than light, and that's a no-no. So the speed of light puts limits on how stiff something is.

So let's think of something else. I hit a table. The atoms in the table change directions and creates a force that pushes back. Now let's suppose I have something that is traveling near the speed of light. Since I can't push it past the speed of light, if I push on something that near the speed of light, it doesn't change speed very much. No matter how much energy I put into it, it won't go past the speed of light.

This presents a problem. Suppose I have a table and the particles in it are vibrating at close to the speed of light. If I hit that table, the particles won't react, and so I won't get a force in the other direction. So if I hit a table with particles moving at close to the speed of light, then my hand will fall through the table, and since the particles don't react with each other, solid objects are impossible once you have particles that are moving at close to light speed.

So the net result is that it doesn't matter what the table is made of. It doesn't matter how many particles there are. Once I crush the table enough so that the particles are moving near light speed, it will cease acting like a solid object. Having smaller particles makes the problem *worse* since it's easier to push a particle to light speed.

This means that if Einstein is right, things will get crushed to nothing. Now this leads to some absurd situations, so we are pretty sure he is wrong. The trouble is that no one knows *how* he is wrong.
bill alsept
#48
Mar8-12, 01:15 AM
P: 124
Quote Quote by twofish-quant View Post
I don't think that black holes are mysterious. The singularity in the middle of a black hole, on the other hand.....



There's a basic problem.

Suppose you have an infinitely stiff stick. I push the stick on earth, then instantly the end of the stick on the moon moves. Uh. Oh. I just transmitted information faster than light, and that's a no-no. So the speed of light puts limits on how stiff something is.

So let's think of something else. I hit a table. The atoms in the table change directions and creates a force that pushes back. Now let's suppose I have something that is traveling near the speed of light. Since I can't push it past the speed of light, if I push on something that near the speed of light, it doesn't change speed very much. No matter how much energy I put into it, it won't go past the speed of light.

This presents a problem. Suppose I have a table and the particles in it are vibrating at close to the speed of light. If I hit that table, the particles won't react, and so I won't get a force in the other direction. So if I hit a table with particles moving at close to the speed of light, then my hand will fall through the table, and since the particles don't react with each other, solid objects are impossible once you have particles that are moving at close to light speed.

So the net result is that it doesn't matter what the table is made of. It doesn't matter how many particles there are. Once I crush the table enough so that the particles are moving near light speed, it will cease acting like a solid object. Having smaller particles makes the problem *worse* since it's easier to push a particle to light speed.

This means that if Einstein is right, things will get crushed to nothing. Now this leads to some absurd situations, so we are pretty sure he is wrong. The trouble is that no one knows *how* he is wrong.
Thank you, I like the way you describe things. Very insightful and interesting. I too think there is a problem and would like to discuss this more but it seems I get scolded every time I even begin to get speculative. Thanks again
bill alsept
#49
Mar8-12, 01:16 AM
P: 124
Quote Quote by twofish-quant View Post
Small particles makes things collapse faster. The reason things stop collapsing is that you've filled up all of the energy states. Once you increase gravity, the energy levels change so that you have empty stops that open up. If you create new particles, the number of energy states increases even more so things will collapse faster.
Can you explain this one another way?
Thanks
bill alsept
#50
Mar8-12, 01:42 AM
P: 124
Quote Quote by twofish-quant View Post
There's a basic problem.

Suppose you have an infinitely stiff stick. I push the stick on earth, then instantly the end of the stick on the moon moves. Uh. Oh. I just transmitted information faster than light, and that's a no-no. So the speed of light puts limits on how stiff something is.


I know this is speculating (not overly I hope) but what if the speed of light was not the end all. What if thatís all the faster it could go because of some unknown resistance. It appears gravity out does the speed of light why not other things?
Chalnoth
#51
Mar8-12, 02:46 AM
Sci Advisor
P: 4,840
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
I know this is speculating (not overly I hope) but what if the speed of light was not the end all. What if thatís all the faster it could go because of some unknown resistance. It appears gravity out does the speed of light why not other things?
Given that we have experimented with many particles moving exceedingly close to the speed of light, it is highly highly unlikely that we are misunderstanding this effect.
bill alsept
#52
Mar10-12, 03:23 AM
P: 124
Why cant this work?

http://scienceblogs.com/startswithab..._a_singula.php
Chalnoth
#53
Mar10-12, 04:48 AM
Sci Advisor
P: 4,840
Quote Quote by bill alsept View Post
I strongly suspect that the pressure wouldn't allow it to keep from collapsing further, as before.
PRDan4th
#54
Mar10-12, 07:39 AM
P: 63
I tend to agree with Bill, the idea of a singularity just does not make sense. Why cannot a neutron star be massive enough or small enough to create a black hole. The smallest particle must be incompressible beyond some level of pressure.


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