What is Chemical bonding: Definition and 32 Discussions

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bonds" such as covalent, ionic and metallic bonds, and "weak bonds" or "secondary bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei in a bond relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves.
In general, strong chemical bonding is associated with the sharing or transfer of electrons between the participating atoms. The atoms in molecules, crystals, metals and diatomic gases—indeed most of the physical environment around us—are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter.

All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but, in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds. The octet rule and VSEPR theory are two examples. More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory, which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, and molecular orbital theory which includes linear combination of atomic orbitals and ligand field theory. Electrostatics are used to describe bond polarities and the effects they have on chemical substances.

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  1. Dario56

    I Why Does Molecular Potential Energy Curve Have That Specific Shape?

    Molecular potential energy of hydrogen in dependence with atomic distance for bonding orbital is given by picture below. We can see that at large distances force between atoms is attractive and potential energy drops to minimum which corresponds to bond energy and length. This part of the...
  2. Dario56

    Why Do Atoms Need to Have Free Electrons to Create Covalent Bonds?

    Atoms bond because compounds are more stable or have less energy than individual atoms. Interatomic potential energy depends with distance of atoms and there is a distance at which potential energy has minimum. This distance is a length of the bond. When forming covalent bonds, why is it...
  3. micklat

    I Explaining atoms and bonding using entropy

    I am a biology undergraduate interested in abiogenesis. The entropic explanation for the origin of life is that life is allowed to exist because it increases universal entropy. I am curious about how far we can take this theory down. How can you explain the emergence of atoms and atomic...
  4. Navin

    Chemistry Compare the Bond lengths of IO2F2 and IOF3

    Okay So our Chemistry Professor gave us the answer as the following IO2F2 has a larger bond length than IOF3 The reason being is once you draw the structures of the compounds IO2F2 has more number of double bonds that the later hence it shall have more p charecter than IOF3...hence it will...
  5. nineteen

    What tutorial for Resonance structures?

    Hello everybody, I am stuck with drawing resonance structures for different types of compounds. Do you know any tutorials or any methods to master drawing resonance structures? If yes, please be kind enough to drop some links and statements below. Thank you very much in advance.
  6. P

    Hydrogen bonding in human skin

    if the human skin consists of hydrogen, then why does not happen hydrogen bond through contact with something or with another person?
  7. navneet9431

    Does the Potential Energy increase during Chemical Bonding?

    Hi All, The Potential Energy for two chemically bonding atoms is defined by ,U=1/2(k*q1*q2)/r So it means that when the atoms approach each other then, their Potential Energy will increase. Where am I doing wrong? I will be thankful for help!
  8. P

    Chemical bonding during touching

    there is some chemical bond between the skin of one person and another during touching?
  9. N

    I Chemical Bonding - Wave function

    https://ps.uci.edu/~cyu/p224/LectureNotes/lecture7/lecture7html/ Does NaCl have a wavefunction? If so, is it entangled?
  10. Navin

    Dipole moment carbon florides of isotopes of Hydrogen

    Homework Statement Compare Dipole moment of CH3F and and CD3F where D is deuterium. Homework Equations Theory questions The Attempt at a Solution Our sir had explained that to do this question we muat take into account the vibration of the atom in the respective molecule. That is that the...
  11. V

    Hybridisation Doubt: When Does it Take Place and When Not?

    There is an example given in my textbook showing the structure of BF3. In it, they have hybridised the orbitals of B to sp2, but not of F. It's written sp2-p overlapping. Why isn't flourine also hybridised, seeing it has 3 lone pairs and 1 bond pair, it could have sp3 hybridisation? Also, in...
  12. B

    Physics of a chemical reaction: looking for textbook recs

    I'm currently doing a literature review on ultracold chemistry with an emphasis on collisional theory and quantum phenomena. I'm an undergraduate physics major, and I'd start my discussion of this topic by moving from basic Newtonian conservation laws and concepts like Coulomb repulsion to the...
  13. Simon Chen

    A Flexibility and chemical bonding

    Recently, I have been studying flexible thin film transistor (TFT), so I wonder the relationship between flexibility and chemical bonding. Chemical bondings composed of sp3 orbital, s orbital, which one is more flexible? Which one of amorphous Si film, poly Si film, IGZO film is more flexible...
  14. Vivan Vatsa

    Difference between many chemically related terms?

    In chemistry, chemical bonding is a very important topic. What I can't really understand is the interrelation of different theories which explains the same kind of thing, like for structure of any compound there are theories like Valence bond theory or VSEPR or molecular orbital theory. I am...
  15. H

    Why HCl is polar covalent compound?

    since HCl dissociates in H+ and Cl- like NaCl then why it is not ionic still?? tell except electronegativity diff?
  16. S

    Books on Atomic Structure, Chemical Bonding, Quantum for Beginners

    Hi all! I would like to ask your help! I am a rookie in the subject. I have to admit i don't exactly interested in the mathematical way. I really don't have the "basic" advanced math which would needed it. :) Look at me if i would be a high school physics and chemistry teacher whose imaginary...
  17. andyrk

    Kossel Lewis Approach To Chemical Bonding

    We know that a shell can accommodate a maximum of 2n2 electrons because a shell can have a maximum of n2 orbitals depending upon the value of n, i.e n=1 for K shell, n=2 for L shell, n=3 for M shell, n=4 for N shell and so on. According to Lewis, he pictured the atom in terms of a positively...
  18. B

    Quantum physics underlining the 'magic numbers' in chemical bonding & more.

    a. What do we know about any quantum-physical law, dictating 8 electrons in the outer atomic shell + the other shells' populations, including the 2 electrons in the innermost. Any physical theory behind these numbers, or just an empirical reality ? b. How reacting atoms 'choose' between...
  19. T

    Chemistry Bonding: Why Are Atoms Bonded?

    Hello I am currently taking a general chem course, and we are studying bonding. I am having trouble understanding why atoms for ex: 2 separate hydrogen atoms have higher energies than a hydrogen molecule. I understand that atoms/ions are always seeking configurations/geometries that will...
  20. S

    Chemical Bonding: Does CN Neutral Exist?

    Does CN neutral exist? if it will their will be a triple bond but their will be 1 single electron left in the carbon atom now if answer is yes i am all good but if no then why can't 1 unpaired electron remain unbonded?why has it always got to be a "pair" of electrons?
  21. S

    Understanding Chemical Bonding: Why Last Sublevel Electrons Matter

    hello, to preview chemical bonds must be considered only the electrons in the last sublevel and not the electrons in all the level? for example my book talking of carbon sp hybridation say that we shouldn't expect it make 4 bounds but only 3, why if the carbon need exactly 4 electron to...
  22. J

    Understanding Chemical Bonding Force - Help John Understand!

    Chemical bonding force. Help me understand how chemists describe this force! So one proton has a positive charge. One electron has a negative charge. When we bring them together, that makes one hydrogen atom. The positive proton and the negative electron cancel each other out. Perfect! But...
  23. B

    Energized Electrons in Chemical Bonding

    In chemistry I learned the bonding rules that I learned for various molecules never mentioned anything about the different energy levels in electrons. Now that I know electrons can have various energy levels from absorption of photons, I would like to know if this changes the behavior of...
  24. rocomath

    Chemical bonding, is this book good?

    So I'm having trouble grasping the theories of Chemical bonding and I'm taking Organic Chemistry. I know it's not realistic that I will truly understand it, but I'd like some grasp of it. This book is written by Linus Pauling and I know he is a 2-time Nobel Prize winner, but is this book at my...
  25. L

    Please help - chemical bonding and energy change

    I am not positive if I did this correctly, but I was wondering if someone could check and then, potentially, offer ideas. The question asked to use bond energies and estimate the energy change deltaH (in kJ/mol) for N=N + 2H2 --> H2N-NH2 (that first N=N is triple) I think I just...
  26. K

    Chemical Bonding - Polar bonds

    What determines the ionic nature of a bond? I am a bit confused regarding this. Is it the polarising ability of the cation or the greater electronegativity of the anion? Regarding fajan's rules, smaller the size of the cation (and greater the charge) and smaller the size of the anion, greater...
  27. V

    Chemical bonding - spin of bonded electrons

    Can anybody here please explain to me about the spin of an electron in the covalent bond? My textbook just says that it follows the Hund’s rule. Moreover I am confused with one more statement in the text – it says that in a covalent bond, in the bonding molecular orbital the electrons tend to...
  28. H

    Chemical Bonding in Hydrocarbon

    While studying chemical bonding for methane,ethyne etc., I have made the following assumption to help me to remember the sigma bond, pai bond, and hybrid orbitals. 1. Every single covalent bond around a carbon atom is a sigma bond. 2. Only one of the bond in double and triple covalent bond...
  29. A

    Help With Chemical Bonding Worksheet

    I just started a worksheet and wanted to check the answers I've gotten thus far and ask for a bit of help with the ones I'm stuck on.:smile: [What's bolded is my answer.] A chemical bond is an attractive force that holds atoms together. Chemical bonding is the process of atoms...
  30. A

    Periodicity & Chemical Bonding Homework Help General Chem

    Periodicity & Chemical Bonding "Homework Help" General Chem 30. How does ionization energy change as one proceeds a) across the periodic table in a horizontal row b) down the periodic table in a vertical group Give an explantion for each answer. 31. Arrange the following atoms or ions...
  31. C

    Chemical Bonding: Ionic Bond Test, Graphite & Diamond Properties

    1. What test would determine whether a solid substance contains ionic bonds? and 2. a) Explain why graphite is soft and has a high melting point. b) Explain why diamond is hard and has a high melting point. c) Why is diamond a poor conductor of an electric current and graphite a good...
  32. chroot

    Electron spin and chemical bonding

    I am relaying this question from rtharbaugh1, who originally posted it to a thread in the Quantum Physics forum: https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?s=&postid=98040 Can any of you chemistry nerds answer this? :smile: - Warren