chemical bonding Definition and Topics - 12 Discussions

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bonds" such as covalent, ionic and metallic bonds, and "weak bonds" or "secondary bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei in a bond relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves.
In general, strong chemical bonding is associated with the sharing or transfer of electrons between the participating atoms. The atoms in molecules, crystals, metals and diatomic gases—indeed most of the physical environment around us—are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter.

All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but, in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds. The octet rule and VSEPR theory are two examples. More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory, which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, and molecular orbital theory which includes linear combination of atomic orbitals and ligand field theory. Electrostatics are used to describe bond polarities and the effects they have on chemical substances.

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  1. Dario56

    I Why Does Molecular Potential Energy Curve Have That Specific Shape?

    Molecular potential energy of hydrogen in dependence with atomic distance for bonding orbital is given by picture below. We can see that at large distances force between atoms is attractive and potential energy drops to minimum which corresponds to bond energy and length. This part of the...
  2. Dario56

    Why Do Atoms Need to Have Free Electrons to Create Covalent Bonds?

    Atoms bond because compounds are more stable or have less energy than individual atoms. Interatomic potential energy depends with distance of atoms and there is a distance at which potential energy has minimum. This distance is a length of the bond. When forming covalent bonds, why is it...
  3. micklat

    I Explaining atoms and bonding using entropy

    I am a biology undergraduate interested in abiogenesis. The entropic explanation for the origin of life is that life is allowed to exist because it increases universal entropy. I am curious about how far we can take this theory down. How can you explain the emergence of atoms and atomic...
  4. Navin

    Chemistry Compare the Bond lengths of IO2F2 and IOF3

    Okay So our Chemistry Professor gave us the answer as the following IO2F2 has a larger bond length than IOF3 The reason being is once you draw the structures of the compounds IO2F2 has more number of double bonds that the later hence it shall have more p charecter than IOF3...hence it will...
  5. nineteen

    What tutorial for Resonance structures?

    Hello everybody, I am stuck with drawing resonance structures for different types of compounds. Do you know any tutorials or any methods to master drawing resonance structures? If yes, please be kind enough to drop some links and statements below. Thank you very much in advance.
  6. P

    Hydrogen bonding in human skin

    if the human skin consists of hydrogen, then why does not happen hydrogen bond through contact with something or with another person?
  7. Navin

    Dipole moment carbon florides of isotopes of Hydrogen

    Homework Statement Compare Dipole moment of CH3F and and CD3F where D is deuterium. Homework Equations Theory questions The Attempt at a Solution Our sir had explained that to do this question we muat take into account the vibration of the atom in the respective molecule. That is that the...
  8. V

    Hybridisation doubt

    There is an example given in my textbook showing the structure of BF3. In it, they have hybridised the orbitals of B to sp2, but not of F. It's written sp2-p overlapping. Why isn't flourine also hybridised, seeing it has 3 lone pairs and 1 bond pair, it could have sp3 hybridisation? Also, in...
  9. B

    Physics of a chemical reaction: looking for textbook recs

    I'm currently doing a literature review on ultracold chemistry with an emphasis on collisional theory and quantum phenomena. I'm an undergraduate physics major, and I'd start my discussion of this topic by moving from basic Newtonian conservation laws and concepts like Coulomb repulsion to the...
  10. Simon Chen

    A Flexibility and chemical bonding

    Recently, I have been studying flexible thin film transistor (TFT), so I wonder the relationship between flexibility and chemical bonding. Chemical bondings composed of sp3 orbital, s orbital, which one is more flexible? Which one of amorphous Si film, poly Si film, IGZO film is more flexible...
  11. Vivan Vatsa

    Difference between many chemically related terms?

    In chemistry, chemical bonding is a very important topic. What I can't really understand is the interrelation of different theories which explains the same kind of thing, like for structure of any compound there are theories like Valence bond theory or VSEPR or molecular orbital theory. I am...
  12. H

    Why HCl is polar covalent compound?

    since HCl dissociates in H+ and Cl- like NaCl then why it is not ionic still?? tell except electronegativity diff?
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