# Classical e&m Definition and 9 Discussions

Classical mechanics is a physical theory describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. For objects governed by classical mechanics, if the present state is known, it is possible to predict how it will move in the future (determinism), and how it has moved in the past (reversibility).
The earliest development of classical mechanics is often referred to as Newtonian mechanics. It consists of the physical concepts based on foundational works of Sir Isaac Newton, and the mathematical methods invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Leonhard Euler, and other contemporaries, in the 17th century to describe the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Later, more abstract methods were developed, leading to the reformulations of classical mechanics known as Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics. These advances, made predominantly in the 18th and 19th centuries, extend substantially beyond earlier works, particularly through their use of analytical mechanics. They are, with some modification, also used in all areas of modern physics.
Classical mechanics provides extremely accurate results when studying large objects that are not extremely massive and speeds not approaching the speed of light. When the objects being examined have about the size of an atom diameter, it becomes necessary to introduce the other major sub-field of mechanics: quantum mechanics. To describe velocities that are not small compared to the speed of light, special relativity is needed. In cases where objects become extremely massive, general relativity becomes applicable. However, a number of modern sources do include relativistic mechanics in classical physics, which in their view represents classical mechanics in its most developed and accurate form.

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1. ### Classical The first book of E&M is for self-study

Can Classical Electromagnetism by Jerrold Franklin replace Griffith's for self-study? The book is now in its second edition.
2. ### I What is semipositive definite?

In Jackson,(3rd edition) Chapter 1 , page no, 44 He uses the word "semipositive definite" what is it? is it "non-negative" definite?
3. ### Classical EM vs Orbital Angular Momentum

Consider the following experiment from the point-of-view of classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism: An originally free electron then passes through a magnetic field that is oriented so that it causes the electron to turn to, say, the right. During the “turning” of the electron (a...
4. ### Capacitance of two spheres with equal radius

I'm considering two identical spherical conductor each of radius ##a## and separated by a distance ##d##, and trying to figure out the capacitance of this configuration. My thoughts are that since capacitance is $$C=\frac {Q}{V}$$ and that the spherical conductors are equipotential surfaces...
5. ### What is the second-order Born approximation?

Homework Statement Equation (10.30) in Jackson is the first-order Born approximation. What is the second-order Born approximation? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I can get the first-order Born approximation in Jackson's textbook. If I want to obtain the second-order (or n-th...
6. ### Intuitive reasoning for frequency remaining constant during refraction

What is the intuition for why the frequency of light does not change as it passes from a less dense medium to a denser one (or vice versa)? Classically, if we treat light in terms of waves, then intuitively, is the reason why the frequency does not change because it is determined by the...
7. ### Dielectric material in 'induced electric field'

Hi everyone, I just wanted to know/understand that, why do the dielectrics don't get polarized, when subjected to induced electric field ? Because, according to the definition of electric field(which is a vector), it is the force per unit charge, which implies, that electric field has a unique...
8. ### What causes EMF induced in Faradays law when only B changes

I am having trouble with deducing the origin of Maxwell's Laws, especially Faraday's Law. Obviously some of the laws has to be originated by experiments and the rest should be mere deductions. I would guess that Lorentz force law is the empirical information where we just named some terms as...
9. ### Classical/QFT Vacuum Fluctuations

I want to ask a question about the Quantum Vacuum, but I want to make a few statements about my understanding of the Classical concept of a vacuum to act as a background. 1.)As I understand it, the classical vacuum is a place where there is nothing. 2.)Two attributes of the classical vacuum are...