What is Duke: Definition and 14 Discussions

Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of royalty, or nobility. As rulers, dukes are ranked below emperors, kings, and grand dukes. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. In most countries, the word duchess is the female equivalent.
Following the reforms of Diocletian (which separated the civilian and military administrations of the Roman provinces), a dux became the military commander in each province. The title dux, Hellenised to doux, survived in the Eastern Roman Empire where it continued in several contexts, signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy.
During the Middle Ages the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies. Dukes were the rulers of the provinces and the superiors of the counts in the cities and later, in the feudal monarchies, the highest-ranking peers of the king. A duke may or may not be, ipso facto, a member of the nation's peerage: in the United Kingdom and Spain all dukes are/were also peers of the realm, in France some were and some were not, while the term is not applicable to dukedoms of other nations, even where an institution similar to the peerage (e.g. Grandeeship, Imperial Diet, Hungarian House of Magnates) existed.
During the 19th century, many of the smaller German and Italian states were ruled by Dukes or Grand Dukes. But at present, with the exception of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there are no dukes ruling as monarchs. Duke remains the highest hereditary title (aside from titles borne by a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty) in Portugal (though now a republic), Spain, and the United Kingdom. In Sweden, members of the Royal Family are given a personal dukedom at birth. The Pope, as a temporal sovereign, has also, though rarely, granted the title of Duke or Duchess to persons for services to the Holy See. In some realms the relative status of "duke" and "prince", as titles borne by the nobility rather than by members of reigning dynasties, varied—e.g., in Italy and Germany.
A woman who holds in her own right the title to such duchy or dukedom, or is married to a duke, is normally styled duchess. Queen Elizabeth II, however, is known by tradition as Duke of Normandy in the Channel Islands and Duke of Lancaster in Lancashire.

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  1. J

    Can I trust this article from Duke on mice and OCD?

    If this is true I think it is very interesting and encouraging so, Any expert can help? https://www.inc.com/john-brandon/brain-scientists-have-made-a-big-discovery-about-ocd.html https://today.duke.edu/2016/07/ocdreceptor "Brain scientists at Duke University tested lab mice who were bred with...
  2. AndresPB

    Programs Medical Physics Graduate Programs

    Good night to all, I would really appreciate if everyone could give me their opinions on: MS in Medical Physics in Duke University MS in Medical Physics in Columbia University MS in Medical Physics in Vanderbilt University MS in Medical Physics in Cleveland State University Ph.D in Radiological...
  3. B

    Schools Medical Physics Program: Duke or Georgia Tech

    I am trying to decided between attending Duke or Georgia Tech for a Master's in Medical Physics. I would be very grateful for any opinions on the matter. Thanks!
  4. B

    Schools Duke Medical Physics Program -- how was your experience?

    I would like to know more about Duke's Master of Medical Physics program. Do any of you know about the clinical experience you can receive while attending? Also I am curious about the student to student experience that is most common during the program. To clarify, are students typically...
  5. R

    Designing F1 Car w/ Duke 390 Engine: Sprocket Dimensions

    hello, I'm designng a f1 car,,, we are using a duke 390 engine...we are using a chain differential... now I'm trying to make the sprockets. to make this sprockets i need to know its dimensions.. that is sprocket teeth diameter width etc... so, I'm very much confussed with it. how to get this...
  6. N

    Duke VS U Penn Medical Physics

    I've recently got admitted into the medical physics master program at Duke and U Penn and don't know which one to choose. I'm now having a proton therapy thesis for my bachelor degree and I like it pretty much but not sure if it's a lifelong career choice. U Penn has a proton center, also they...
  7. Greg Bernhardt

    Duke University Astronomy 101 Online Course

    Duke University is hosting a free course (video lectures) on "Introduction to Astronomy" by Ronen Plesser. Starts Nov 27th. Free to sign up! https://www.coursera.org/course/introastro
  8. drizzle

    News David Duke's Heated Interview with Wolf Blitzer on CNN Situation Room

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KvYHkGcQHI&feature=player_embedded http://www.mediabistro.com/tvnewser/cnn/on_cnn_david_duke_calls_wolf_blitzer_israeli_agent_points_to_past_job_at_aipac_49267.asp" [Broken] What do you think about his claim that Zionist control the media?/what’s your...
  9. turbo

    Duke will have a new friend

    One of my wife's co-workers has a twin sister whose son had a dog that they picked up as a stray. He and his wife have moved to a place that will not allow dogs (very common situation in our state's financial turmoil) and since she already had a dog and a cat, the extra dog was a bit much for...
  10. turbo

    Say hi to Duke, our rescue dog.

    Despite our allergies, etc, my wife and I have been wanting a dog to share our small place with. Here is a really bad flash-shot of Duke. He's a 2 year old boxer/chocolate Lab mix. We just took him to visit Max the Wonder Dog (pit bull/German shepherd cross) who lives down the road, and there...
  11. S

    Schools Duke Eng Grad School;Subtle Signs?

    Hello everyone, In short; I applied to Duke University when I was in high school in Wales. I was rejected. However, I was accepted at the University of Florida. Now I am Industrial Engineering Major, Senior year. I received at my house address in Jordan a letter from Duke University...
  12. gabee

    Duke Physics Challenge: Let Go or Hang On?

    This isn't really a homework question, I'm just doing it because I'm curious and the result isn't immediately obvious. I'm hoping someone else can verify the solution. From http://www.phy.duke.edu/%7Ehsg/physics-challenges/challenges.html Homework Statement A painter is high up on a ladder...
  13. F

    News Randy Cunningham's Bribery & Scandal: Reaction & Opinions

    With all the Democrat vs. Republican crap aside, was anyone else surprised as I was to hear the admissions of Randy Cunningham about his bribes and scandle regarding a home sale? I have to say that it is not very often that one sees a childhood hero shot down (pardon the pun) in such a horrible...
  14. L

    Schools Duke Univ. Pre-Med & Mathematics: High School Junior's Perspective

    I'm a high school Junior living in Tenn. and everyone at school is starting to look into colleges they might want to try and get into. I've been looking into Duke University. From what I have seen, I think it looks like a great college with a great student life. I plan on going Pre-Med. What do...