What is Israel: Definition and 53 Discussions

Israel (; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, romanized: Yisra'el; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎, romanized: ʾIsrāʾīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, and shares borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over the city is limited.Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine.
The land was controlled as a mandate of the British Empire from 1920 to 1948, having been ceded by the Ottomans at the end of the First World War. Not long after, the Second World War saw the mandate bombed heavily and Yishuv Jews serve for the Allies, after the British agreed to supply arms and form a Jewish Brigade in 1944. Amidst growing tension and with the British eager to appease both Arab and Jewish factions, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). Subsequent legislative acts have resulted in the full application of Israeli law within the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, as well as its partial application in the West Bank via "pipelining" into Israeli settlements. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is internationally considered to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state, and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member. It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict. It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness.

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  1. davenn

    Stargazing Huge daytime fireball over Israel earlier today

    Huge daytime fireball over Israel earlier today. (15 Apr 2023) https://www.timesofisrael.com/unusually-bright-meteor-seen-over-israel-as-some-report-hearing-blast/?fbclid=IwAR2mXZmlknAC821IB2syvsdEFt-mTwjUaJri4rDyVJWE3erCPYNK6B_1jW0I have at least one meteorite hunter/collector packing his...
  2. bhobba

    COVID Israel: 86% Increase in Effectiveness with 3rd Pfizer Dose

    Data has come in from Isreal about the effectiveness of a third dose: https://www.straitstimes.com/world/middle-east/third-pfizer-dose-86-effective-in-over-60s-says-israel-healthcare-provider Remember this is 86% better than those that have already had two doses. I will leave it to others to...
  3. F

    A Israel junction conditions for simple metrics

    Hello, I am curious as to how one appropriately matches an interior and exterior solution in GR, i.e. where the interior corresponds to the field of some finite spherical mass (perfect fluid sphere, for the Schwarzschild interior solution). Specifically, looking at both the Schwarzschild...
  4. DaniV

    Help in choosing Israeli academic institute

    In the next semester (October 2016) I want to start learning physics with preferation for learning in a program that including two subjects- physics and math for the 1st degree. My will it`s to advance to theoretical research and to get a Doctor degree, even co-operate with international...
  5. Astronuc

    Mediterranean Coins near Israel - > 1000 years

    Scuba Divers Discover (by Chance) 'Priceless' Gold Coins in Israel https://gma.yahoo.com/scuba-divers-discover-priceless-gold-coins-israel-173801909--abc-news-topstories.html [Broken]
  6. K

    Israel Khan Derivation Step: From Eq. 2.9 to 2.10

    I am looking at the classic paper Israel and Khan "Collinear Particles and Bondi Dipoles in General Relativity" Nuovo Cimento 33 (1964) 331. The basic question is how to go from equation 2.9 to 2.10? a_i is the center of rod i and b_i is the mass of rod i. The attached file has the details...
  7. P

    Israel Wilson Perjes Metric: Tetrad Formalism Reference

    Is there any book or reference perhaps on string theory or superstring theory or even advanced general relativity that treats the Israel Wilson Perjes metric using the tetrad formalism in details, i.e, 1-forms and so? (Not spinors methos) I have ran across many papers that just place the spin...
  8. P

    Tension Shells & Tension Stars: Exploring the Israel Formalism

    I've been learning the Israel formalism (see original article here) for thin shells. I think I understand the formalism well and how to do the matching given two manifolds (that are solutions of the Einstein's field equations - EFE). I've been studying several articles that use the matching...
  9. D

    News Israel's Possible Attack on Iran: An Objective Analysis

    http://news.yahoo.com/israel-sending-signals-iranian-attack-195607515.html I hope not. In the meantime, the article is exceptionally thorough and objective. Rare for the media these days.
  10. V

    News The big protests in Israel

    This is a third week of big protests in Israel. The protests are about high cost of living and social justice. Yesterday, more than 300,000 people marched on streets in protest. This is probably the biggest protests in Israel history. People have banners saying “This is Egypt”. Previous week...
  11. O

    Mosaic in Lod Israel - way cool

    Mosaic in Lod Israel - way cool ! This mosaic from antiquity recently caught my attention. At first they found the tail of a tiger and eventually found a near complete mosaic floor depicting birds, fish, animals, plants and Roman-era ships. It is about 1700 yrs old. (made in 3rd century)...
  12. M

    News Can One Secular State Solve the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict?

    63 years Israel was created as the only democratic country with western values in Middle East. In the same time, 60% of Palestinian people left their land and they are not allowed to return until now. If those refugees are allowed to return back, then Israel will not be a Jews state anymore, and...
  13. M

    From Israel: what are these recently added transformer discs?

    This woman in Israel is spooked by the clear, brown and green discs just added to transformers in her Israeli townas seen in this clip http://img128.imagevenue.com/img.php?image=82134_ScreenHunter_02Feb.0403.03_122_415lo.jpg She writes: "What are The new installations on the Pylons...
  14. S

    News Saudi Arabia giving green light to Israel?

    Apparently this is a possibility: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article7148555.ece The "stone age" monarchy terrified of the "stone age" theocracy! The real unknown is whether Obama would shoot down an IAF mission over Iraq en route to Iran. George Washington was...
  15. zomgwtf

    News Why does the U.S. continue to provide military aid to Israel?

    So in the other thread which has now been locked for being dragged off topic continuously (I guess it was easier to just keep deleting posts and then lock it altogether than to ask people to stop posting that particular information) I've decided to start a new thread. Specifically dealing...
  16. K

    News Is Israel a Rogue State? A Discussion on International Controversy

    I meant rogue of course, please pardon my dyslexia. http://us.cnn.com/video/?/video/world/2009/11/29/Newton.israel.rogue.cnn". I'm curious see the opinions of everyone here, so please vote in the poll and post your thoughts on the matter. I agree with the two scholars interviewed, while...
  17. C

    News Discussing the Israel Lobby: Mearsheimer & Walt vs. Dershowitz

    This is a thread for discussing the existence, influence, and exceptionalism of the "Israel Lobby" as proposed by Mearsheimer & Walt and rebutted by Dershowitz. First, the papers themselves: http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/Research/wpaper.nsf/rwp/RWP06-011/$File/rwp_06_011_walt.pdf, Mearsheimer...
  18. C

    News Biden: New Israel would be 'ill-advised' to attack Iran

    http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hiRmW6LJrSIvrbGP1dY_W2YpAaBw" [Broken] Bush refused to give Israel the codes the Israeli air force needs to safely overfly Iraq and he also refused to give Israel the most advanced bunker busters. The Obama adminstration has now publically...
  19. russ_watters

    News What does Israel Seek to Gain?

    To those who see Israel as an agressor in the ongoing fighting in their region of the world, I ask a straightforward question: What does Israel seek to gain via their continued fighting? Expanding: if the fighting stopped now and Hamas permanently ceased the launching of rockets and...
  20. humanino

    News What is wrong with Israel ?

    Can someone explain me why - Israel would bomb a water well, upon which the survival of innocent lives relies ? - Israel would forbid plastic remplacement pieces for those wells to cross the borders ? Plastic cannot be melt to built weapons. As the days, the weeks, and the years go along, I...
  21. A

    News Who truly won the battle between Israel and Gaza?

    who won israel vs gaza ?? Peace upon u after 22 days of war on not clear targets .. israel is thinking of "ceasefire" what does this mean in fact ?? rockets had not been stopped .. gaza had not been reached yet .. targetting schools, UN establishments, food and fuel stores killing...
  22. A

    News Hundreds die in Israel raid on Gaza

    http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2008/12/200812279451509662.html" [Broken] No Comment!
  23. B

    News Why is the security of Israel so important to the United States

    I know the conflicts between Israel and other Arab and middle eastern countries have been mentioned many times in PF. Rarely is it ever mentioned why we should continue supporting Israel . Since the 1970''s , the United states has given is a total estimate of 1.3 trillion dollars of taxpayers...
  24. G

    News Is the Israel-Hamas truce a hopeful step towards lasting peace in Gaza?

    http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/06/19/israel.hamas.truce/index.html Hopefully this peace will hold. Unfortunately, I doubt it.. but I truly hope.
  25. Evo

    News Obama's Commitment to Israel: A Closer Look

    So Obama has come out very pro-Israel. This is a good first start. Based on the recent rumours tying Obama to a Palestinian "activist", Obama has made his intentions clear. Does this change your perception of him...
  26. S

    News Israel and Israel and Jerusalem and Judaism

    I would like to briefly share an opinion as a non-practicing russian jew and United States citizen living in california. I feel like many jews I know (including a good friend of mine - an argument I just had with her led me to start this thread) are making a fatal conceptual error in regards to...
  27. Y

    News [Not so] Secret understandings reached between representatives of Israel, Syria

    http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/813817.html" [Broken] Do you believe this will lead to an eventual agreement?
  28. L

    News Teheran: Israel will regret any attack

    http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1167467674699&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull" [Broken]
  29. D

    News Why is there only one country that vetoes at the UN when it comes to israel ?

    why is there only one country that vetoes at the UN when it comes to israel ?? why is there only one country that vetoes at the UN when it comes to israel ?? but the rest of the entire world votes for the resolution.
  30. D

    News How will israel get the soliders back now ?

    how will israel get the soliders back now ?? how will israel get the soliders back now that they haved realized that they can't bomb them back ??
  31. E

    News Israel Strikes: What's Next?

    http://www.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30000-13532571,00.html [Broken] What will this lead to? Are we heading for a full scale war?
  32. J

    What If Einstein Had Been President of Israel?

    ...had taken up the offer of becoming president of Israel in 1952, would things have been different? I think so. Imagine, he could do some theoretorising on higher dimensions, finding a way in which space could be inhabited by both parties at the same time... Of course, this wouldn't be...
  33. N

    News Will Israel back us if we attack Iran?

    Do you guys think that Israel would assist us if America and our allies attack Iran? Because as I look at it, Iran, not Palestine, is Israels greatest threat.
  34. B

    News Who is responsible for the recent violence in Palestine?

    This morning the Israeli attacked a Palestinian jail (under UK/USA controll)and killed a policeman and prisoner. Their goal is to arrest or to kill one of the prisoners who is a member in the Palestinian parliament. According to a previous agreement, this jail is put under the control of...
  35. S

    News Ukraine - Yushchenko Reveals Why Israel Backed Him - BBC News

    Ukraine - Yushchenko Reveals Why Israel Backed Him Zionists Already Put In Charge Of Media And Defense. New Prime Minister Is Also A Zionist BBC News 2-5-5 The new President of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko, has appointed multi-millionaire "dual citizen" Yevgeny Chervonenko...
  36. S

    News Israel to Take Remaining 20,000 Jews from Ethiopia

    If Israel is a "free" country, why is preferential treatment given to Jews only with respect to immigration? That would be the equivalent of the U.S.A. only allowing Christians to immigrate. Israel to Take Remaining 20,000 Jews from Ethiopia Tue Feb 1, 9:30 AM ET By Allyn Fisher-Ilan...
  37. G

    News Hamas could accept long-term truce with Israel

    http://www.aljazeera.com/cgi-bin/news_service/middle_east_full_story.asp?service_id=5862 [Broken] Sounds good to me.
  38. M

    News Israel willing to peace in the middle east

    Read the qoute below by Sharon, the prime minister of Israel: "I don't know something called International Principles. I vow that I'll burn every Palestinian child (that) will be born in this area. The Palestinian woman and child is more dangerous than the man, because the Palestinian child's...
  39. G

    News Why does the US support Israel?

    Why the US supports Israel I am not positionning myself on whether it should or not, or whether it is enough or too much, since I have met, and followed the points of view of people from Israel, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq, and have managed to get along with each of these persons. I try to keep...
  40. T

    News Problems began with Israel.

    Man! I'm getting pissed more and more at what Israeli soldiers do.They killed some time ago wheelchair guy and now childrens?!What the F***? And what USA does of course nothing, and maybe even increasing cash donation.If not for Israel existence we and Arabs could have been best friends,but...
  41. T

    News Will Israel and USA Bomb Iran's Nuclear Facilities?

    Are they (Israel/USA {who else?}) going to bomb Iran's nuclear facilities? I think they will 100% after elections.No doubt about it. What you guys think?
  42. T

    News Israel Occupying Palestinian Land: Is It Smart?

    I believe everyone here agrees that jews are smart bunch of people,so how come they behave towards palestinians like a barbarians?maybe they are not that smart after all? having such a powerfull army and 100% backing of USA in every endevour,could not they find peacfull/diplomatic solution to...
  43. pelastration

    News The Israel Spy in the Pentagon

    Are they talking about Abram Shulsky? http://www.disinfopedia.org/wiki.phtml?title=Abram_N._Shulsky
  44. Shahil

    News UN votes on Israel Wall

    http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1560739,00.html What are your views on the wall? My view: It's been nicknamed the "Apartheid Wall" and it dwarfs the Berlin Wall. It's just a massive symbol of oppression which should not exist in todays's society. Why they were allowed...
  45. kat

    News Israel Gunmen Used UN Ambulances to Carry Remains

    http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&storyID=5147434 A nice juicy jelly donut to the first person who guesses what's wrong with this Reuters headline...
  46. jimmy p

    News Israel: nuclear since the 80's

    OK, so i just heard on the news that Israel has had nuclear weapons since 1986. Which means the search for WMD could have started a long time ago. How come Israel can have illegal WMD and not even have inspectors go in but there is such a huge fuss over Iraq?
  47. pelastration

    News Israel says: Bush capitulated.

    Israel says:"Bush capitulated." http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/19/international/europe/19SPIEGEL2.html Straight to the Heart By ANNETTE GROSSBONGARDT, Der Spiegel ? Published: April 19, 2004 ... snip But the prime minister sees himself as a victor - and he knows that public opinion...
  48. D

    News Will Israel and Palestine be absorbed into the European Union?

    The Jerusalem Post reports the Spanish Foreign Minister Ana Palacio said "she supports adding Israel and a future Palestinian state to the European Union after a peace agreement is reached," after Shimon Peres recommended such a move at the Socialist Internationale which was approved. The...
  49. S

    Artificial rain cloud machine created by Israel scientists

    !Artificial rain cloud machine created by Israel scientists! Yesterday, while seeing spanish news, I was seeing are report of Israel scientists created a machine that produces artificial clouds with rain!The machine is a clear tube with an apparatus at the bottom and closed at the top...
  50. C

    News Russia Threatening Israel with Nukes?

    Russia Ready to Vaporize the Jewish State And then kick America out of the Eastern Hemisphere’s oilfields Copyright Joe Vialls, 28 October 2003 During the Cold War of the sixties, the only thing stopping American or Russian psychopaths from taking over the entire world was the doctrine of...