Feel free to answer any subset. I'm not a science person, so apologies in advance for some of the absurdity. 1. When heat up some piece of matter (e.g., a rock), do the the electrons (of the atoms of which the rock is composed of) start moving faster? If so, then why do we observe temperature as a continuous phenomenon - or, at least, pseudo-continuous with millions of different possibilities (e.g., 25.743 C°, 245.24565435 C° etc.) - after all, the elements that are in the rock are bound by a very low energy levels (say, n=3). Therefore, the angular momentum can only be 0, 1, 2, which would mean that only three different temperatures are possible (assuming you would introduce the heat uniformly throughout the entire rock). What am I misunderstanding? Another reason I am wrong is because I've read that temperature does not have an upper limit, however, the angular momentum does have an upper limit... 2. I've seen pictures of electron clouds that appear to diffuse outwards in a continuous fashion (like a picture of the bivariate normal distribution) to positive infinity and negative infinity. I've also seen picture where it's just a geometric shape (a sphere or a oval sphere or a spherical cone) that's bounded in space. Which one is more accurate? Asking in another way: For a particular atom in Melbourne, is there a nonzero probability (albeit extremely small) of its electron appearing in the US (while the nucleaus stays in Melbourne and nobody does anything to it)? 3. Is there a mathematical pattern that produces the standing waves of the subshells we know of? Or is it just arbitrary and we don't understand it yet? 4. What does it take to kick out an electron? How often does it happen in our daily lives? What kind of wavelength and what kind of intensity is required to kick out an electron of an hydrogen atom, say? 5. Why are noble gases and other non-bonded atoms colorless? Why is that only after bonding the molecules assume color? 6. Why do we not have color photographs of molecules? Shoulnd't the wavelength be visible at that scale? 7. Why do the planets of our solar system have such large variation in color (blue, red etc.)? The visible spectrum is so extremely small - why does the emission/absorption just happen to take place in that range? Or are the emission/absorption characteristics so extremely idiosynchartic for different matters at all wavelength ranges? 8. When I look at the 2p (x,y,z) subshells I notice that when you put them together, then there will be some overlapping of the clouds (does that mean that the overlapping regions have additive probabilities of the two subshells)? 9. I once asked why the electrons and protons don't collide due to the magnetic attraction. Someone said that the laws at the atomic scale are different. However, I then read on wikipedia that electrons obey electromagnetic rules. What gives? Thanks!