# electrons

1. ### A Measurements and electroweak gauge invariance/transformations

Most gauge transformations in the standard model are easy to see are measurement invariant. Coordinate transformations, SU(3) quark colours, U(1) phase rotations for charged particles all result in no measurable changes. But how does this work for SU(2) rotations in electroweak theory, where...
2. ### I Excited electrons' behaviour, how do they work?

Mainly I want to know the following thing: electrons when excited they tend to want to go back to ground state, right? One way is by photons, but how does that work? Accelerating charges creates EM waves, but in this case there was no acceleration, right? Or is the term accelerating only a way...
3. ### Photoelectric effect question

The full questions is in the picture. I already solved a) and found 5.6E14 electrons per second For b) i first found the power of the light but just multiplying the intensity with the area: (6.0 W/m2)(3.5E-4 m^2) = 0.0021 W Then I tried to use the voltage from the graph but i am not sure which...
4. ### AC Electricity Generation and Transmission over a Single Wire?

I'm a bit confused as to why can't you transmit AC current over a single wire. For instance, say you have an AC generator which induces potential difference at different points of the wire and thus, creating current. Downstream, the wire can be split and applied to a load. When the wire is...
5. ### I How Would Electron Entanglement Affect Photon Emission

Suppose you have a pair of electrons in the same quantum state, and are thus spin entangled, and they absorb a pair of photons and release them at the same time. How would this affect the photons? Would the photons be entangled? Would it affect the photon spin, and if so, how would it affect the...
6. ### A Need help with the reaction of neutrons and electrons

Please let me know if the following reaction is possible for high energy electrons colliding with neutrons or neutron-rich nuclei: n+e^{-}\to \Delta^{-}+\nu_e.\tag{1} If it is forbidden for some conservation law or for some other reason, please give me an explanation why. This reaction is...
7. ### Problem finding the distribution of holes in a semiconductor

1. Homework Statement Long and thin sample of silicon is stationary illuminated with an intensive optical source which can be described by a generation function $G(x)=\sum_{m=-\infty}^\infty Kδ(x-ma)$ (Dirac comb function). Setting is room temperature and $L_p$ and $D_p$ are given. Find...
8. ### B Magnetic Field from Protons vs Electrons

If an electron is moving in a circle in a magnetic field, it produces a magnetic field in accordance to the right hand rule. If a proton is moving in a circle in a magnetic field, would it produce a magnetic field in accordance to the left hand equivalent to the right hand rule.
9. ### How is the motion of an electron around nucleus?

How electron revolves around orbitals? Is the velocity uniform or accelerated?
10. ### A Doubly excited Atom of Helium

The Atom of Helium is doubly excited in 2p2 1D Can someone explain to me how these energy symbols work? I have a problem with what the 1D means specifically. I know 2p2 means two electrons in the 2p state. The 1 in 1D could be referring to electron being in a singleton, but I don't understand...
11. ### B Calculating the frequency of a free electron

I feel like I must be missing something obvious, but I can't figure it out. I have the speed of an electron, and to calculate its frequency i used p = h/λ, then subbed in p =mv and λ= v/f. Giving me the equation f = mv2/h. However, I also could use E = 1/2 mv2 and E = hf to give me the equation...
12. ### I Do electrons have a net motion when a DC voltage is applied?

I am wondering whether electrons have a net motion against an applied constant electric field in a conductor. Intuition tells me that "of course they should", but so far the math has shown me otherwise. Here are my current thoughts: 1) I cannot rely on the obsolute Drude's model. What's more...
13. ### B Why does bonding occur between atoms?

If each electron cloud repels other electrons and other atoms, then why can two or more atoms form molecules? Is it to do with negative and positive charges?
14. ### Finding the initial charge

1. Homework Statement Suppose an object has a charge of 1 C and gains #9.38 ✕ 10^18# electrons. When another object is brought in contact with the first object (after it gains the electrons), the resulting charge on the the second object is 0.9 C. What was the initial charge (in Coulombs)? 2...
15. ### B Electrons, magnetism and spin

Theory explains magnetism in iron as a combined effect of magnetic moments of electrons. Now, what is confusing me is that valence electrons in iron are supposed to be free. The valence band and conduction band overlap. So, what kind of orbital and spin-ular momentum do these free electrons...
16. ### I How do Batteries Work?

So I understand in a battery that an anode (such as zinc) and a cathode (such as carbon) are separated by an electrolyte. I also understand that the electrons want to flow into the cathode, but can't get to them, so as soon as a conductor connects the two terminals, current can flow. However...
17. ### Why is the Anode of an LED Connected to Positive?

So, I'm new to electronics and I started to build some circuits with LEDs. I read up on how LEDs work and how they consist of a doped semiconductor material etc. But when I actually went to wire the LED in, it said the anode should be connected to the positive terminal of the power source. I'm...
18. ### I Electric Potential vs Electric Potential Energy

So in my physics textbook a problem is stated. We are given an external electric field directed downwards of 150N/C. We are then told that an electron is released in the electric field and it moves upwards 520m. Finally we are asked to calculate the change in electric potential energy of the...
19. S

Dear all, sorry I made a new post similar to the previous post "Initial conditions..", however, a critical point was missed in the previous discussion: The initial conditions y(0)=1 and y'(0)=0 are fine and help in solving the Schrödinger equation, however, studying free electrons, the equation...
20. ### I Can charged baryons flow induce magnetic field?

We all think that electric current is the electrons flow without mass transfer in conductor, i.e. charged lepton flow. But charged baryons flow can also deemed as "electric" current, e.g. ionic current. My question is that charged baryons flow can induce magnetic field? Same amperes, then same B...
21. ### Chemistry Measuring the Mass & Electric Charge of Molecules

1. Homework Statement Hi! So I stumbled upon this simple "plug n' play" exercise in my Physics textbook. Basically it gives you certain molecules/atoms, and tells you to measure the Electric Charge, and its Mass. Pretty simple, but I hit upon some hickups. Anyway, let's get to it: Find the...
22. K

### B A couple of questions about diodes and the depletion region

In a diode, we have N side, P side, and a depletion region, made of positive and negative charged sides. N side and P side of the diodes are neutral charge. In N side there are free electrons. In the positive charged side of the depletion region, there are positively ionized atoms that "lack"...
23. ### Lustre of metals

What gives metals their Lustre? One of my books(living science chemistry by arun syamal) says that the electrons achieve a higher energy state by absorbing energy and come back to their ground state by emitting it of which light is a part but my teacher tells that it is due to the crystalline...
24. C

### I (QED) The initial mass and the correction cancelling out

The prefix is a bit irrelevant This is on renormalisation. How do they cancel out? Isn't it adding? So the mass experimental = m + (c2correction) so how do you cancel out the m and correction? I'm new to this area (just finished watching lectures by Richard Feynman, specifically a 4 lecture...
25. ### I Are any electrons ejected below the threshold frequency?

I've been reading about the photoelectric effect, and something got me thinking. If the frequency of light shone onto the metal is below the threshold frequency, no electrons are liberated from the surface of the metal, since electrons absorb quanta of energy, so if that light is shone for a...
26. ### I Wave-Particle Duality of Electrons

The wave-particle duality of light was demonstrated first with Thomas Young's 1801 Interference Experiment...and then more clearly with the Double Slit Experiment. Both of these were done with light (so photons). My question is -- How did we come to understand the same of electrons? Did we...
27. ### Can a cathode ray tube be made from a light bulb?

Light bulbs and cathode ray tubes are structurally similar in some respects. For example, both contain a filament -- in the light bulb, the filament heats up to produce light, while in a cathode ray tube, the filament emits electrons, which are then steered into a target (in a CRT TV, the...
28. ### I EMW Absorption

Hello, I have a presentation tomorrow and in a segment, I talk about light absorption. It's more conceptual than technical. I did quite a bit of research on the topic but because of simplifying information I may have butchered the facts and written something wrong. Could anyone please confirm/...
29. ### Electric Field Question

1. Homework Statement An electron is released from rest in a weak electric field given by -2.8 x 10-10 N/C [PLAIN]https://www.flipitphysics.com/Content/smartPhysics/Media/Images/Tipler/Symbols/jhatbold.gif. [Broken] After the electron has traveled a vertical distance of 1.9 µm, what is its...
30. ### I Why an electron's drift velocity is so slow?

Electrons are moving VERY fast. However, they don't have a high drift velocity in a circuit. Why? Is it because every time they advance a little bit they collide with an atom? Or is it because the electric field in a circuit is not strong enough so the electrons don't get pushed enough?