# Annihilation and energy occurance

• humsafar
In summary, when annihilation occurs, there is a release of energy in the form of two photons, each with the equivalent energy of the mass of one of the annihilating particles. The total amount of energy released is equal to the sum of the mass energies of the particles involved. Adding energy to the particles before annihilation, such as by accelerating them, will result in a greater release of energy. The number of photons released can vary depending on the net angular momentum of the annihilating pair. In comparison to fusion reactions, proton-antiproton annihilation releases about 143 times more energy. The comparison of the strong force to electromagnetism in a particle is dependent on the specific reaction and conditions involved. The weak force is responsible
humsafar
Can someone be precise and tell how much energy is released when annihilation occurs...let's say proton-antiproton(i.e in MeV),also is there some missing energy in it that is not detected(i.e difference between predicted and observed results in energy generation)

In general, annihilation ends up with two photons, each with the energy equivalent to the mass (E=mc2) of one of the particles involved.

I believe the total amount of energy released would be equal to the sum of the two particle masses/energy. An at rest proton and anti-proton would release 2 x 0.938 GeV/c2 in energy in the form of new particles. (Since 0.938 GeV/c2 is the rest mass of a proton.)

If you add energy into the particles before they annihilate, such as by accelerating them, they will release more energy.

drakkith said:
if you add energy into the particles before they annihilate, such as by accelerating them, they will release more energy.

why??

Because the system has more energy and energy is conserved.

Yeah but can someone give numbers?(i.e in MeV how much more is detected)

Only if you give numbers for how much more energy is added in KE. The detected energy is equal to the sum of the mass energy plus the added KE.

mathman said:
In general, annihilation ends up with two photons, each with the energy equivalent to the mass (E=mc2) of one of the particles involved.

Two or three, depending on the spins of the original particles. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positronium#States".

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DaleSpam said:
Only if you give numbers for how much more energy is added in KE. The detected energy is equal to the sum of the mass energy plus the added KE.

What is KE exacly?

Kinetic energy.

DaleSpam said:
Kinetic energy.

Of course! It all seems so simple now!

Ok Ok...but can anyone tell the quantity of energy we get during annihilation is "HOW MANY TIMES" that of fusion?

You really will need to be more specific than that. There are a lot of different fusion reactions, each one with a different yield.

For the proton-proton chain which dominates the fusion in our sun converts about 0.7% of the mass into energy. So proton-antiproton annihilation releases about 143 times more energy.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-proton_chain

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mathman said:
In general, annihilation ends up with two photons, each with the energy equivalent to the mass (E=mc2) of one of the particles involved.
The number of photons can vary, with low numbers being more likely, and will depend on net angular momentum. If particle-anti-particle pair has angular momentum of 1, for example, at least 3 photons have to be emitted. (Odd number, 1 being forbidden.) Though, for most (all?) particles, the probability of the pair emitting a single photon first, and decaying to a 0 orbital momentum state before annihilation is greater.

DaleSpam said:
You really will need to be more specific than that. There are a lot of different fusion reactions, each one with a different yield.

For the proton-proton chain which dominates the fusion in our sun converts about 0.7% of the mass into energy. So proton-antiproton annihilation releases about 143 times more energy.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-proton_chain

Thanks for the numbers...but at the start of this thread I was looking for numbers in "Mega Electron Volts" and a comparison then,

Drakkith gave you the numbers in post #3.

humsafar said:
Thanks for the numbers...but at the start of this thread I was looking for numbers in "Mega Electron Volts" and a comparison then,

the answer your demanding is dependent on the input variables, like anything else. KE is just one of the input, more would include the angle of interaction if it took place in a 3D model.

Few more questions,

1) What is the comparison of strong force to electromagnetism in a particle (let's say in proton), i.e how much is the strong force present as compared to em force (let's hypothetically assume releasing strong force creates 100 MeV energy, how much energy will be created releasing em force)?

The electromagnetic force is what holds together molecules, so "releasing em force" is a chemical reaction. There are many different chemical reactions, you need to specify which chemical reaction you are interested in and any relevant conditions.

The strong force is what holds together nuclei, so "releasing strong force" is a nuclear reaction. There are many different nuclear reactions, you need to specify which nuclear reaction you are interested in and any relevant conditions.

humsafar said:
Few more questions,

1) What is the comparison of strong force to electromagnetism in a particle (let's say in proton), i.e how much is the strong force present as compared to em force (let's hypothetically assume releasing strong force creates 100 MeV energy, how much energy will be created releasing em force)?

Fusion of Tritium and Deuterium releases about 17.6 MeV in energy, thanks to the strong nuclear force. This is thousands of times more energy than one reaction between oxygen and gasoline in an engine.

Can someone give links to easy to understand ebook on atomic structure focusing on QCD, Electromagnetism...?
And other processes if possible such as fusion, annihilation ...

Can someone describe the Weak force, I'm having troubles understanding its definition and what it does, please describe in detail but simple wordings if possible...

## 1. What is annihilation?

Annihilation is a process in which matter and antimatter particles collide and are converted into pure energy.

## 2. How does energy occur during annihilation?

During annihilation, the matter and antimatter particles annihilate each other, releasing energy in the form of photons and other particles.

## 3. Can annihilation occur naturally?

Yes, annihilation can occur naturally through cosmic rays, which are high-energy particles from outer space colliding with particles in our atmosphere.

## 4. What is the relationship between mass and energy in annihilation?

Einstein's famous equation, E=mc^2, describes the relationship between mass and energy in annihilation. It states that mass and energy are interchangeable and can be converted into one another.

## 5. Is annihilation reversible?

No, annihilation is not reversible. Once matter and antimatter particles annihilate each other, they are converted into energy and cannot be reversed back into their original form.

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