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Aqueous equilibria, buffered solutions

  1. May 4, 2013 #1
    I have two problems.

    1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

    How many moles of Na2CO3 must be dissolved in 250 mL of 0,125 M NaHCO3 so that the solution has a pH of 10,00?


    2. Relevant equations

    e7b16254e716fa85975d6d798ca11fad.png
    3955cdeb8e83126bb0daea63876c7789.png
    The powers of the concentrations are the coefficients in the chemical equation. The products of the equation are in the numerator, and the reactants in the denominator.

    3. The attempt at a solution

    I have an idea for a solution, but I have no way of checking whether it's correct. My solution is as follows.

    The sodium ions can be ignored because they have no significant effect on the pH.

    The equation is: HCO3- ⇔ H+ + CO32-

    I set [CO3]2-=y, and to equilibrium this concentration changes to y+x, but I assume that x is very small compared to y so y+x ≈ y. The same applies to HCO32-. The initial concentration of that is 0,5 M, and it occurs change towards equilibrium that is 0,5 M - x, which is essentially 0,5 M.

    If I'm allowed to do the above, the problem is easy. I know Ka for HCO32- so all I have to do is plug everything I know into the Ka equation and solve for [H+].

    1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

    In a very basic solution the insoluble salt Cr(OH)3 (Ksp=1,6*10-30) dissolves and forms the metal complex Cr(OH)4- (Kf=8*1028). Calculate the equilibrium constant, K, for the reaction:
    Cr(OH)3(s) + OH-(aq) ⇔ Cr(OH)4-(aq).

    2. Relevant equations

    Same as in the first problem.

    3. The attempt at a solution

    I'm not sure how to approach this exact problem. I know how to solve simpler problems that are showcased in my textbook, but there you're given numbers like molarities to work with. Here I only have equilibrium constants.
     
  2. jcsd
  3. May 4, 2013 #2

    Borek

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    Staff: Mentor

  4. May 4, 2013 #3
    Thanks for the reply.

    1. Yes I have, but to my knowledge its only use is that you calculate pH in one step instead of two. I'm wondering whether my y+x=y and 0.5-x=0.5 assumptions are justified.

    2. Thanks, I'll try that.
     
  5. May 5, 2013 #4

    Borek

    User Avatar

    Staff: Mentor

    Well, it is possible to solve buffer problems using ICE tables. Whether your assumptions are correct you would have to check, solve the problem using them and see if your x and y have values that fit the approximations.

    Just note that

    concentration of H+ is not what you are looking for. Besides, initial concentration of HCO3- is not 0.5M. Are you sure you are solving the problem you have listed?
     
  6. May 5, 2013 #5
    It's this problem, I just made stupid mistakes. You're correct of course, it's 0.125 M.

    Oh, silly me. Of course I'm not supposed to find H+. Well, then I don't know what to do. Now I have a y which is my unknown, but I also know nothing abut the concentration of H+. Do you have any ideas?

    edit: Woops, of course I know [H+]. The pH is supposed to be 10,00 at equilibrium. The case is closed! Thanks for the help.
     
    Last edited: May 5, 2013
  7. May 5, 2013 #6

    Borek

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    Staff: Mentor

    My ideas? Obvious: use the HH equation.
     
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