Are all calories equivalent for fat loss?

Are all calories equivalent for weight loss?

  1. Yes

    1 vote(s)
    33.3%
  2. No

    2 vote(s)
    66.7%
  1. bohm2

    bohm2 790
    Gold Member

    Which position offers stronger evidence? Please vote: No or Yes.

    Here are a few papers taking each position:

    1. No, all calories are not created equally:
    Evidence:

    a. Under Free-living conditions:
    Effects of Dietary Composition on Energy Expenditure During Weight-Loss Maintenance
    http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article....icleid=1199154

    b. Under metabolic ward (hospitalization) conditions:
    Dietetic treatment of obesity with low and high-carbohydrate diets: comparative studies and clinical results.
    https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B05o7uyVl6paelpIZXdnMnNrRmM/edit?pli=1

    c. Theory
    Thermodynamics of weight loss diets
    http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/pdf/1743-7075-1-15.pdf

    d. Timing of food/calories
    Time-Restricted Feeding without Reducing Caloric Intake Prevents Metabolic Diseases in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?...etabolic Diseases in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120517132057.htm

    2. Yes, all calories are treated the same.
    Evidence:

    a. Under Free-living conditions:

    Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates
    http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa0804748

    b. Under metabolic ward (hospitalization) conditions:

    Almost all metabolic ward studies show no significant difference in weight/fat when altering macronutrient ratios if calories are the same. And with respect to the Rabast study it has been criticized because:
    Loss of weight, sodium and water in obese persons consuming a high- or low-carbohydrate diet.
    http://www.colorado.edu/intphys/Cla.../discussionEssay/weightLossStudies/rabast.pdf
    Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition.
    http://www.ajcn.org/content/56/1/292S.full.pdf

    c. Theory
    Is a calorie a calorie?
    http://www.ajcn.org/content/79/5/899S.full.pdf

    d. Timing of food/calories
    International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency
    http://www.jissn.com/content/pdf/1550-2783-8-4.pdf
    Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8-week equi-energetic energy-restricted diet.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19943985
     
    Last edited: Jul 23, 2012
  2. jcsd
  3. bohm2

    bohm2 790
    Gold Member

    This is a recent study that is pretty interesting and suggests (as some have argued) that you can't out-train a bad diet and that people mistakingly put too much emphasis on exercise/physical activity for keeping slim/maximizing fat loss instead of watching what and particularly how much they eat:
    Hunter-Gatherers, Westerners Use Same Amount of Energy, Contrary to Theory
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120725200304.htm

    Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0040503
     
  4. bohm2

    bohm2 790
    Gold Member

    I sorta changed my mind on this topic, at least slightly after reading these 2 reviews on the topic. And it seems bodybuilders were right after all, as protein does seem to offer a small metabolic advantage:
    Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20565999

    The study is summarized nicely in this write-up by James Krieger:
    Increasing Protein, or Decreasing Carbohydrate…Which Gives You a Metabolic Advantage?
    http://weightology.net/weightologyweekly/?page_id=285
     
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