This Science news article discusses mouse research which indicates prion involvement. Prion like clumps of islet amyloid polypeptide are found in humans with type 2 diabetes. When injected into healthy mice amyloid clumps formed and the mice developed diabetic symptoms. Prions are mis-folded versions of a normally encoded protein that can propagate their mis-folded weirdness to otherwise normal proteins encoded by the same gene. They are involved in brain diseases like Mad Cow Disease, Kuru, and Creuztfeldt-Jacob disease. If transferred to a different individual, prions can propagate their disease state to the new hosts (if the new animal has the normal protein present).