I can't figure out how aromatic substituents effect aromatic rings. I can think of it in a couple ways: Is the group ortho or meta directing? When we learned about aromatic electrophilic substitution, we obviously learned about these groups. When an aromatic proton is lost, it will be preferentially lost in a certain position due to the additional resonance of whatever group is attached to the ring. So this tells you where you can find extra positive charge on the ring (and thus where it would be more deshielded). For example, an ortho directing group would have more positive charge on the meta positions. This reasoning seems to work when I am doing problems. However you aren't actually pulling off protons, you are just looking at their chemical environments. So take an ortho directing group like OH. The O is electronegative, so it should have a partial negative charge. If it has a partial negative charge then that means it drew electrons out of the aromatic system. So the whole thing would be deshielded, but maybe slightly less deshielded the further away you get from oxygen. This reasoning doesn't seem to work when doing problems. So basically, if you take a neutral aromatic ring with a substituent on it such as an ortho/para director like -OH, is there actually deshielding occuring at the meta positions? We only learned about it in terms of resonance that could be drawn after you pulled a proton off and the ring had an overall +1 charge. I guess this boils down to me not understanding when the inductive effect applies and when resonance stabilization applies.