# Calculating Properties of Tsunamis

In summary, the conversation discusses a project on the Properties of Tsunamis and the search for resources to simplify formulas and understand the mathematics used. The individual is a sophomore in high school and is seeking resources to help with their project, including a meeting with their school's Physics Professor.
I'm doing a project on the Properties of Tsunamis and how they relate to each other if certain variables are input (given).

I've tried looking for a lot of different resources through google however a lot of the search results are phased out by snippets of news concerning past tsunami's or relief funds, both of which I'm not really interested in.

I should make it clear that I'm trying to simplify such formulas by aproximating constants or eliminating some variables completely in exchange for a larger margin of innacuracy. (Basically, I'm a Sophomore in High School and don't think I can cope with a lot of the more advanced properties of Tsunami's yet).

What I've found so far to be closest to what I'm looking for are formulas or theorems from which I could derive such things as Speed, Energy, and Velocity/Acceleration.

The closest resource I've found relating to this is http://plus.maths.org/issue34/features/tsunami/appendix2-gifd.html" thought I'm not entirely sure what all the variables in the equation stand for.

Another resources I found through a post on this forum was for classifying the intensity of Tsunami's (I'm assuming this means energy/power?). However once again I'm a bit dazed by a lot of the variables used. - http://hmf.enseeiht.fr/travaux/CD0001/travaux/optsee/hym/2/pa02.htm#Calculation"

Would you please try to explain the mathematics used in these resources so I can try to understand them or point me to some other resources you think I might find helpful.

I'm meeting with the Physics Proffesor at my school later this week to show him the research I've done so far so he can help me simplify it down to something I can use.

Niklas

Last edited by a moderator:

Hi Niklas,

First of all, it's great to see you taking an interest in the properties of tsunamis and doing your own research on the subject. It's important to understand the science behind natural disasters like tsunamis so that we can better prepare for and mitigate their effects.

The resources you have found so far are a good starting point, but as you mentioned, they may be a bit overwhelming for a high school student. Let me try to break down some of the mathematical concepts for you.

1. Speed, Energy, Velocity/Acceleration:

The speed of a tsunami is determined by its wavelength (distance between two wave crests) and period (time between two wave crests). The formula for calculating speed is v = λ/T, where v is the speed, λ is the wavelength, and T is the period.

The energy of a tsunami is related to its height and speed. The formula for calculating energy is E = ½ρghv², where E is the energy, ρ is the density of water, g is the acceleration due to gravity, h is the wave height, and v is the speed.

Velocity and acceleration are related to the speed of the tsunami. Velocity is the rate of change of position, and acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. In the case of a tsunami, these values can be quite high due to the immense energy and speed of the wave.

2. Understanding the equations:

The first resource you mentioned is an equation for calculating the height of a tsunami based on the initial disturbance (such as an earthquake) and the slope of the ocean floor. The variables in the equation are:

- h: height of the tsunami
- g: acceleration due to gravity
- Δρ: density difference between the water column and surrounding water
- θ: slope of the ocean floor
- Δz: vertical displacement of the ocean floor
- L: horizontal distance from the source of the disturbance

I would recommend discussing this equation with your physics professor to better understand it and how it relates to the properties of tsunamis.

The second resource is a classification system for the intensity of tsunamis. It uses a scale from 0 to 12 to rate the destructive potential of a tsunami. The variables used in this scale are:

- I: intensity (0-12)
- H: wave height (in meters)
- L: horizontal distance from the source of the disturbance

## 1. How do scientists measure the strength of a tsunami?

Scientists measure the strength of a tsunami using a scale called the Richter scale. This scale measures the amplitude of the wave, which is the vertical distance between the peak and trough of the wave. The higher the amplitude, the stronger the tsunami is.

## 2. What factors contribute to the calculation of a tsunami's height?

The height of a tsunami is affected by several factors, including the magnitude of the earthquake that caused it, the depth of the earthquake's focus, and the shape and slope of the seafloor in the affected area. These factors all play a role in determining the size and strength of a tsunami.

## 3. Can scientists predict when a tsunami will occur?

While scientists can predict the likelihood of a tsunami occurring in a certain area based on historical data and the location of a recent earthquake, they cannot accurately predict the exact time and location of a tsunami. This is because the behavior of a tsunami can be affected by many variables and can change rapidly as it travels through the ocean.

## 4. How long does it take for a tsunami to reach land?

The time it takes for a tsunami to reach land depends on several factors, such as the distance from the source of the tsunami, the depth of the water, and the speed of the tsunami. In general, a tsunami can take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours to reach land.

## 5. What methods do scientists use to study the effects of a tsunami?

Scientists use a variety of methods to study the effects of a tsunami, including computer simulations, field surveys, and analysis of satellite imagery. They also gather data from seismometers, tide gauges, and other instruments to better understand the behavior and impact of tsunamis.

• Biology and Chemistry Homework Help
Replies
2
Views
4K
• Earth Sciences
Replies
3
Views
9K
• Mechanical Engineering
Replies
8
Views
3K
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
2
Views
10K
• Classical Physics
Replies
1
Views
804
Replies
6
Views
2K
Replies
4
Views
2K
• Beyond the Standard Models
Replies
14
Views
5K
• Sci-Fi Writing and World Building
Replies
15
Views
3K
• Precalculus Mathematics Homework Help
Replies
16
Views
12K