Hello~ I’m sorry. I can’t English well.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

1. Assuming that total energy of universe is zero.

It looks more natural when an initial energy value of universe is 0. Therefore, negative energy is needed to offset positive energy of matters.

[tex]E_T = 0 = ( + E) + ( - E) = 0[/tex]

2. Mass-energy equivalence

[tex]E = \sum {m_ + c^2 } ; - E = \sum { - m_ - c^2 } [/tex]

[tex](m_ + ,m_ - > 0)[/tex]

3. Positive energy(mass) and negative energy(mass) can exist in the same space-time.

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_udXTGLmmdK4/Su-xBLdm3PI/AAAAAAAAAAM/ByaVtThbj_E/s320/Fig4-02-380.jpg

The acceleration of negative mass is opposite of the direction of force, and in case of negative mass, it does harmonic oscillation at the maximum point and is stable at the maximum point.

In case of a positive mass, it is stable at the low state, whereas, in case of negative mass, it is stable at the high state. Due to this, “the problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity” does not occur, and therefore, in our universe, positive mass and negative mass can exist in the same space-time.

4. Gravitational potential energy of zero energy universe

If negative energy(mass) and positive energy(mass) coexist, GPE consists of the below three items.

[tex]

U_T = U_{ - + } + U_{ - - } + U_{ + + }

[/tex]

[tex]

U_T = \sum\limits_{i,j}^{i = j = n} {( - \frac{{G( - m_{ - i} )m_{ + j} }}{{r_{ - + ij} }})} + \sum\limits_{i,j,j > i}^{i = j = n} {( - \frac{{G( - m_{ - i} )( - m_{ - j} )}}{{r_{ - - ij} }})} + \sum\limits_{i,j,j > i}^{i = j = n} {( - \frac{{Gm_{ + i} m_{ + j} }}{{r_{ + + ij} }})}[/tex]

[tex]

U_T = \sum\limits_{i,j}^{i = j = n} {( + \frac{{Gm_{ - i} m_{ + j} }}{{r_{ - + ij} }})} + \sum\limits_{i,j,j > i}^{i = j = n} {( - \frac{{Gm_{ - i} m_{ - j} }}{{r_{ - - ij} }})} + \sum\limits_{i,j,j > i}^{i = j = n} {( - \frac{{Gm_{ + i} m_{ + j} }}{{r_{ + + ij} }})}

[/tex]

*GPE between positive masses are negative value.

*GPE between negative masses are negative value.

*GPE between positive mass and negative mass are positive value.

When the number of negative mass is n-, and the number of positive mass is n+, total potential energy is given as follows.

[tex]U_T = (n_ - \times n_ + )U_{ - + } + (\frac{{n_ - (n_ - - 1)}}{2}U_{ - - } + \frac{{n_ + (n_ + - 1)}}{2}U_{ + + } )[/tex]

For example, two pairs exist.

[tex]U_T = (U_1 + U_2 + U_3 + U_4 ) + (U_5) + (U_6 )= 4U_{ - + } + 1U_{ - - } + 1U_{ + + }[/tex]

Gravitational potential shows significant characteristic when negative mass and positive mass both exist. While n^{2}positive gravitational potential is produced above, n^{2}-n negative gravitational potential are produced. Therefore, total GPE can have various values.(<0, 0, >0)

5. Simulation setting

a)Definition of parameter

A few parameters were needed to be defined for simulation.

Distance between pair creation negative energy and positive energy(distance of 1 pair) : d_{0}

Minimum distance between particle pairs for density modification during pair creation : d_{m}

Radius of pair creation range : R_{0}=500

Particle number of pair creation : N_{0}=2000ea (1000 pair)

b)Finding mean value

Through Gravitation3D program, 1000 particle pairs (total 2000ea particles) were produced by random and one mean value (GPE) of each distance value was found 5 times each.

c)Verification on program

To check if the calculated results of the program were correct, we calculated the GPE when 1, 2, and 3 pairs (consist of 15ea potentials) of particles existed by hand and confirmed that this value corresponded to the calculated results of the program.

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**

Dismiss Notice

Join Physics Forums Today!

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

# Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe

Loading...

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**