1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I am doing some research and reading this: http://www.csuohio.edu/ece/theses/2004/Bhavin.pdf I don't understand how the equation 4.1.11 on page 67 is derived. Can anyone help clarify? 2. Relevant equations (As in the pdf file) 3. The attempt at a solution I have tried to understand it, but couldnt.