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**1. Homework Statement**

I am doing some research and reading this: http://www.csuohio.edu/ece/theses/2004/Bhavin.pdf [Broken]

I don't understand how the equation 4.1.11 on page 67 is derived.

Can anyone help clarify?

**2. Homework Equations**

(As in the pdf file)

**3. The Attempt at a Solution**

I have tried to understand it, but couldnt.

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