- #1

ELVIS0206

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I confuse energy level,energy state and quantum state, can anyone explain to me with details

thank for taking time to explain

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- Thread starter ELVIS0206
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In summary, the concept of states is used to describe both classical and quantum systems. While classical particles are characterized by positions and velocities, quantum particles are characterized by wave functions. The state space for quantum particles is infinite-dimensional, compared to the finite-dimensional state space for classical particles. The energy associated with a classical particle is a single value, while for quantum particles it is a distribution of energies. When this distribution narrows down to a specific value, it is called an "energy state" and the associated energy is referred to as an "energy level".

- #1

ELVIS0206

- 1

- 0

I confuse energy level,energy state and quantum state, can anyone explain to me with details

thank for taking time to explain

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- #2

arkajad

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For classical particle, according to Newton laws, states are characterized by positions and velocities or, which is almost the same, positions and momenta. For a quantum particle they are characterized by a "wave functions" or "state vectors in a Hilbert space". (Newton's equations of motion are replaced by Schrodinger's equation.)

Thus for a classical particle the dimension of the state space is finite (for instance 3+3, 3 position components and 3 momentum components), while for a quantum particle state space is infinite dimensional (because wave functions can have infinitely many independent "shapes").

For each state of a classical particle you can calculate energy that is associated with this state. You get a number. For quantum states you get, in general, a whole distribution of different energies. When this distribution concentrates on one particular value (like for a classical particle) - you have "energy state". The value of energy associated with such a state is called "energy level".

Energy level refers to the specific amount of energy that an electron in an atom can have, while energy state refers to the state of an electron in terms of its energy level. In other words, energy level is a discrete value, while energy state is a continuous range of values.

Energy levels and quantum states are closely related as quantum states describe the probability distribution of an electron's energy within a given energy level. In other words, energy levels determine the possible energy states that an electron can occupy.

According to the principles of quantum mechanics, an electron can exist in multiple energy states simultaneously. This is known as superposition and is a fundamental concept in understanding the behavior of particles at the quantum level.

The energy levels and states of electrons in an atom determine its electronic structure, which in turn determines its chemical and physical properties. The arrangement of electrons in energy levels and states also determines the reactivity and stability of an atom.

Energy levels and states can be affected by external factors such as electromagnetic radiation or collisions with other particles. This can cause an electron to move to a higher or lower energy level, resulting in changes in the overall energy state of the atom.

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