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I Do the vacuum states created by soft photons have vacuum flu

  1. May 7, 2017 #1
    Putting a soft photon in vacuum will result in a zero energy vacuum state. Despite the zero energy, has this state vacuum fluctuations?

    Putting more of these photons will result in more vacuum states. Would they have vacuum fluctuations as well resulting in more vacuum flctuations? A total amount of multiple vacuum fluctuations?
  2. jcsd
  3. May 7, 2017 #2


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    Putting a photon (no matter how soft it may be) means that you don't have a vacuum anymore. What's called "vacuum fluctuations" in popular-science writing are, from the point of view of "real science", fluctuations of the electromagnetic and matter fields. Ironically the vacuum state (ground state not containing any excitations) is the one thing in QFT that doesn't fluctuate at all.

    We have many interesting discussions on this issue in this forum and also in the Insights:

  4. May 7, 2017 #3

    A. Neumaier

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    Soft photons don't create vacuum states. There is only one vacuum state for each observer, and this state contains no particles, hence no soft photons.
    Last edited: May 7, 2017
  5. May 8, 2017 #4

    A. Neumaier

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    Last edited: May 8, 2017
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