Imagine a planet similar to Earth, but exposed to a completely different star. The star has the same mass and emits the same amount of photons as the sun, but it is a huge, extremely slender torus made of 1 mm diameter neon tubing. The planet is on the axis of the torus and at the same distance from the plane of the torus as Earth is from the sun. A 1mm section of the tubing has a very small mass, so it hardly distorts space locally and it emits very few electrons and gravitrons and extremely few in the direction of the planet and no neutrinos. An astronomer on the planet is not likely to see the star, unless she happens to focus her telescope exactly in the direction of the torus and even then luminosity would appear low. A double parabolic trough lense would be much better to gather photons arriving from the distant torus, but the parabolic trough has to be alined exactly with the torus.