# Ghosts in Practical Calculations - Questions Answered

• earth2
In summary, the conversation is about incorporating ghosts in practical calculations and whether there are two ghost diagrams for each closed gluon loop. The expert responds that there is only one diagram with ghosts running in the loop and explains how the ghost propagator and vertex work in this scenario.
earth2
Hey guys,

I have a question about how to incorporate ghosts in practical calculations. So, from what I understand I have to add a factor of -1 for each closed gluon loop, right? But there are two ghost fields, c and \bar{c} appearing when I quantize the path integral. Does that mean that I also have in principle TWO ghost diagrams for each closed, say, gluon loop?

An example: Let's look at the two-point, 1-loop scattering in pure Yang-Mills. I will only have gluon content, so my guess for the diagrams would be:

physical1-loop = "1-loop all gluon"-"1-loop c-ghost"-"1-loop-\bar{c}-ghost".

Is that correct? I can find a clear explanation...

Thanks!

There's only one diagram with ghosts running in the loop. The ghost propagator takes a $$c$$ ghost to a $$\bar{c}$$, while the vertex is gluon-$$c$$-$$\bar{c}$$. You can never have a $$c$$ or $$\bar{c}$$ running in a loop independently.

## 1. What is the scientific explanation for the presence of ghosts in practical calculations?

The presence of ghosts in practical calculations is often attributed to psychological and perceptual factors. Our brains are wired to look for patterns and make connections, so when we encounter unusual or unexplainable events, we may interpret them as supernatural. Additionally, our senses can be easily deceived, leading us to believe we have experienced something paranormal when in reality, it has a logical explanation.

## 2. Can ghosts affect the outcome of practical calculations?

No, ghosts do not have any physical or scientific evidence to suggest that they can manipulate the outcome of practical calculations. These calculations are based on mathematical and scientific principles, and therefore, cannot be influenced by supernatural forces.

## 3. How can we distinguish between a ghostly encounter and a scientific phenomenon in practical calculations?

The key is to approach the situation with a critical and scientific mindset. Look for alternative explanations and evaluate the evidence objectively. If there is a logical and scientific explanation for the phenomenon, then it is likely not a ghostly encounter.

## 4. Are there any scientific studies or evidence that support the existence of ghosts in practical calculations?

To date, there is no scientific evidence or studies that support the existence of ghosts in practical calculations. In fact, most scientific studies have found that ghostly encounters can be explained by natural and psychological factors.

## 5. How can we use scientific methods to debunk claims of ghostly encounters in practical calculations?

One way to debunk claims of ghostly encounters is to use scientific methods such as controlled experiments, data analysis, and critical thinking. By gathering empirical evidence and evaluating it objectively, we can often find logical and scientific explanations for these encounters.

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