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TimBowe

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The Universe then exists because of one unlikely fluctuation of the vacuum, in which the energy A£ created could be so huge because the time At was small enough not to violate Heisenberg's uncertainty relation.

The Hartle-Hawking idea describes the universe as a giant quantum fluctuation.

In order to visualize Hawking's model, recall that, according to conventional Big Bang theory, the expanding universe, if represented in a Minkowski-like four-dimensional space-time diagram, resembles an ice cream cone whose pointlike tip is the initial singularity. Hawking showed that the near region of this tip can be modified so that its time dimension gradually turns into a space dimension and that the tip becomes a hemisphere as one moves beyond the Planck time. At the bottom of the hemisphere, the four-dimensional space-time degenerates into a four-dimensional spatial manifold from which time gradually emerges without an abrupt coming into existence, so that here is no instantaneous beginning of time. Thus, one would have solved the problem of the initial boundary conditions of the Universe.