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- TL;DR Summary
- The principle of determinism states that under the same conditions, the same causes produce the same effects. But when tossing a fair coin, the probabilities of getting heads or tails are equal to 50%. Random fluctuations lead to deviations from the expected results, not probabilities of 50/50.

I have a question that is bothering me. It is commonly accepted that when playing heads or tails with a fair coin and a large number of tosses are made, the probabilities of getting heads or tails are equal to 50% for each toss. However, the principle of determinism, which states that under the same conditions, the same causes produce the same effects, does not seem to apply in this case. In fact, if we toss a coin in a similar manner every time, the principle of determinism, as I understand it, would suggest that we will always get the same side with a probability of 100% rather than 50%.

Some may argue that in practice, it is impossible to reproduce the exact same tossing conditions each time, which can result in random deviations from the expected results. However, random fluctuations lead to random deviations from the expected results, not probabilities of 50/50.

Some may argue that in practice, it is impossible to reproduce the exact same tossing conditions each time, which can result in random deviations from the expected results. However, random fluctuations lead to random deviations from the expected results, not probabilities of 50/50.