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A Hund's rule and strong spin-orbit interacion

  1. Dec 31, 2016 #1
    I have read that Hund's rules are valid for Atoms with low z.
    Because the third Hund's rule is build of Russell-Saunders coupling.

    Can I still use the first and second Hund's rule for heavy atoms and jj-coupling( for the third rule)?
    Or how can I know the groundstate for an atom with large spin-orbit interaction?

    Thank you
  2. jcsd
  3. Dec 31, 2016 #2


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    I suppose you could, but it'll be meaningless, because ##\textbf{L}## and ##\textbf{S}## are not good quantum numbers in the presence of large spin-orbit coupling. You might take a look at the Wikipedia entry for term symbols:
    It has a good overview for how we determine term symbols for jj coupling.
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