Hyperelastic, elastic, hypoelastic

• Trying2Learn
In summary: With hyperelastic materials, when the stress is increased, the material will first elongate (taking up more space), and then it will deform in a nonlinear fashion (the stress-strain relationship will be nonlinear). This is in contrast to hypoelastic materials, where elongation will not occur and the deformation will be purely linear.
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TL;DR Summary
What is the difference between these words: Hyperelastic, elastic, hypoelastic
Could someone explain to me the difference in these words: Hyperelastic, elastic, hypoelastic? But first...

I understand the terms (in and of themselves), with regard to large deformation, recoverable, strain energy functions, etc. ;, but, instead words like "x-elastic, y-elastic, z-elastic," I would have been equally fine: just words.

But those prefixes "hyper" and "hypo" mean things. And I cannot put those three types of elasticity in a 'hyper' or 'hypo' ranking, while, at the same time, getting a feeling that distinguishes (or, relates) the words to (or from) each other. So, could somone help me out?

Anyone?

I guess that by elastic you actually mean linear elastic. In simple words, without going into details:
- linear elastic material - exhibits elastic behavior at all levels of strain (all deformations are reversible) and this behavior is linear (stress directly proportional to strain)
- hyperelastic material - exhibits elastic behavior even at very high levels of strain (for example rubber can be stretched significantly and it still goes back to its initial shape) and this behavior is nonlinear (nonlinear relationship between stress and strain)
- hypoelastic material - exhibits nonlinear elastic behavior even at very low levels of strain

FEAnalyst said:
I guess that by elastic you actually mean linear elastic. In simple words, without going into details:
- linear elastic material - exhibits elastic behavior at all levels of strain (all deformations are reversible) and this behavior is linear (stress directly proportional to strain)
- hyperelastic material - exhibits elastic behavior even at very high levels of strain (for example rubber can be stretched significantly and it still goes back to its initial shape) and this behavior is nonlinear (nonlinear relationship between stress and strain)
- hypoelastic material - exhibits nonlinear elastic behavior even at very low levels of strain
Hi! THANK YOU! This helps a LOT. Now may I push my luck and ask for a bit more?

Within the context of elastic behavior with regard to large and small strain...

Why is there a strain energy function for hyperelastic materils and NOT for hypoelastic materials.

Next:

Why is it that with the Jaumann stress rate, we REMOVE rotations from hypoelastic materials. I would have imagined we do that for hyperelastic materials.

Last edited:

1. What is the difference between hyperelastic, elastic, and hypoelastic materials?

Hyperelastic materials are those that exhibit a large deformation under stress and return to their original shape when the stress is removed. Elastic materials also deform under stress, but they can only do so within a certain range and will return to their original shape when the stress is removed. Hypoelastic materials have a smaller deformation under stress and may not return to their original shape when the stress is removed.

2. What are some examples of hyperelastic materials?

Some examples of hyperelastic materials include rubber, silicone, and some types of plastics. These materials are often used in applications where flexibility and elasticity are important, such as in tires, gaskets, and medical devices.

3. How are hyperelastic, elastic, and hypoelastic materials used in engineering?

Hyperelastic materials are often used in engineering applications where a large amount of deformation is needed, such as in shock absorbers or seals. Elastic materials are used in a wide range of applications, from clothing to building materials, where some flexibility is needed but not a large amount of deformation. Hypoelastic materials are often used in structural components that require stiffness and strength, such as in bridges or buildings.

4. Can hyperelastic, elastic, and hypoelastic materials be combined in a single product?

Yes, it is possible to combine different types of materials in a single product. For example, a tire may have a hyperelastic rubber outer layer for flexibility and an elastic inner layer for structure and support. Engineers often use a combination of materials to achieve the desired properties for a specific application.

5. How do scientists and engineers test the properties of hyperelastic, elastic, and hypoelastic materials?

Scientists and engineers use a variety of methods to test the properties of these materials, including tensile and compression tests, as well as specialized tests such as the uniaxial tension test for hyperelastic materials. Computer simulations and mathematical models are also used to predict the behavior of these materials under different conditions.

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