Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe (abstract) http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/08/1302730110 The earliest bone tool so far found in Europe predates the time when modern humans began replacing Neanderthals. (IMO) The interesting aspect of this is that anthropologists frequently have a Homo sapiens-centric view of new technologies, i.e., modern humans made new innovations before they showed up in Neanderthal sites. If brain size correlates to cognitive power in human species, then H. neanderthalensis was no dummy. "Neanderthal Brain Size at Birth Sheds Light on Human Evolution". National Geographic. 2008-09-09. (cannot get to original). Neanderthal brain size was the same as modern humans at birth, adult Neanderthals had on average larger brains.