I recently received the results from my DNA tests at 23andme. I found out that I have more Neanderthal DNA than 80% of customers at 23andme. This has got me pondering the Neanderthals. My impression is that most anthropologists believe that the homo sapiens deliberately caused the Neanderthals to go extinct. I recently read the book Sapiens, and the author of that book says that the homo sapiens prevailed against the Neanderthals because the homo sapiens worked together in far larger groups than Neanderthals ever would. The Neanderthals did not make art that last to this day in caves, while homo sapiens did. Because of these facts, I think that most anthropologists believe that homo sapiens were/are more intelligent than the Neanderthals were. I believe that the Neanderthals had larger skulls than homo sapiens, which would suggest that the Neanderthals had larger brains than homo sapiens. But I think that most anthropologists think that the balance of the evidence favors the idea that homo sapiens were/are more intelligent than Neanderthals. I know that there were no written languages anywhere in the world before the Neanderthals went extinct around 30,000 years ago. I'm curious as to how history would have played out if Neanderthals never went extinct. I mean, there has been all types of racism and drama about racism in human history with just different races of one species of humans: homo sapiens. Imagine the political implications and other implications of two different species of humans co-existing in the modern world! It could have happened. If Neanderthals never went extinct, would Neanderthals have the intelligence to read and write? What do you base your answer on?