# Operation amplifier - inverting amplifier

• logearav
In summary: This makes perfect sense and i was just wondering how u could say conventional current flows from left to right. Its like defining a coordinate system. If you define the X axis as pointing to the right, then a negative X velocity means travel is to the left. By "define a direction for the current", we mean define a direction for current when its value is positive. once you have chosen a direction that will be defined as "positve current flow", then you can tell the actual direction of the charge carriers according to the sign. For example, if you define left-to-right as "positive current flow", then you know that if its value is negative, then the charge carriers are moving right-to-left.Thanks Mr
logearav
operation amplifier -- inverting amplifier

## Homework Statement

Please refer my attachment which is inverting operational amplifier.
Iin = (Vin - VA)/Ri
If = ( VA - Vout) / Rf
My question is why not
Iin = (VA - Vin)/Ri
If = ( Vout - VA) / Rf

## The Attempt at a Solution

#### Attachments

• IMG2.jpg
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Not sure if this is what you are getting at, but: Conventional current presumes positive charge carriers (because it was defined before we knew about electrons) and it became the defacto standard in literature. So unless otherwise noted, pretend flow goes from positive to negative.

i don't understand sir

logearav said:
i don't understand sir

(Although you've shown no arrow in the diagram indicating the direction of Iin, I've assumed it goes from left to right.)

Since conventional current is defined as going from positive voltage to negative, Iin has a positive value when Vin is positive. So the first equations are correct (for conventional current). Google "conventional current" and "electron current". The second equations would be correct for ~electron current~ rather than conventional current, but as I said, conventional current is to be assumed unless otherwise stated.

First you should define your current directions. Usually Iin would be taken as flowing INTO the input lead. The choice you make will determine what is the correct expression for the current that flows through Ri.

Thanks for the replies gneill and fleem. yes the direction of the current is from left to right and how can it be construed as conventional current ( flow of positive charge carriers). I mean how u say that the current which flows from left to right is conventional current?

logearav said:
Thanks for the replies gneill and fleem. yes the direction of the current is from left to right and how can it be construed as conventional current ( flow of positive charge carriers). I mean how u say that the current which flows from left to right is conventional current?

Its like defining a coordinate system. If you define the X axis as pointing to the right, then a negative X velocity means travel is to the left.

By "define a direction for the current", we mean define a direction for current when its value is positive. once you have chosen a direction that will be defined as "positve current flow", then you can tell the actual direction of the charge carriers according to the sign. For example, if you define left-to-right as "positive current flow", then you know that if its value is negative, then the charge carriers are moving right-to-left.

Thanks Mr. fleem

## What is an operational amplifier?

An operational amplifier, or op-amp, is an electronic circuit component that amplifies the voltage difference between its two input terminals. It is often used in signal processing, filtering, and mathematical operations.

## What is an inverting amplifier?

An inverting amplifier is a type of operational amplifier circuit where the output voltage is the opposite polarity of the input voltage. This is achieved by connecting the input signal to the inverting input terminal and providing feedback from the output to the inverting input.

## What is the gain of an inverting amplifier?

The gain of an inverting amplifier is determined by the ratio of the feedback resistance to the input resistance. It is expressed as the negative of the feedback resistance divided by the input resistance.

## What are the advantages of using an inverting amplifier?

Inverting amplifiers have high input impedance, low output impedance, and high voltage gain. They can also be easily cascaded together to achieve higher gains and can be used in a variety of applications such as audio amplifiers, filters, and instrumentation circuits.

## What are the limitations of inverting amplifiers?

Inverting amplifiers require a negative power supply and have limited frequency response due to the use of capacitors in the feedback network. They also have a limited output voltage swing and can introduce noise and distortion to the signal if not designed properly.

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