Question about the Earth acting as a conductor/ground

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In summary: If you were somehow able to put a large negative charge on the earth, you would have to put a positive charge somewhere else on the earth.In summary, the Earth and other large conductors have the ability to neutralize both positive and negative charges. The potential (voltage) of the Earth is not affected by small amounts of charge being added or removed, as it is a large conductor. The Van de Graaf generator and lightning rod also demonstrate this principle, as they can conduct a large charge to or from the Earth.
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NeuronalMan
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Homework Statement


Hello, I'm a little confused about the statements regarding conductors grounded to large conductors, as the Earth. Basically, my physics textbook says that metal sphere with a positive charge and ground it to the Earth, electrons from the ground will neutralize the positive charge. That's understood. But is this to say that the Earth, or any large conductors can only neutralize positive charge? If a building is struck by lightning and there's a lightning rod on the top of the building, doesn't the lightning rod conduct the enormous charge to the Earth, which is the opposite of my first example? So I can't seem make this concept disambiguous, as I thought that an entity could only have one of the two features. I am having the same conceptual problem with the Van de Graaf generator. There's a girl touching the dome, subject to electric potential, while standing on a platform insulating her from the floor. So she's not grounded. If she was grounded to the Earth, would it be the Van de Graaf generator conducting the charge to the Earth, or the Earth neutralizing the girl?

I know this is very basic, yet it's not altogether clear to me. So an answer is deeply appreciated.

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What you need to "get" is that it is not the quantity of charge that is important, but the voltage (electric potential). A useful way of thinking of potential is consider it like the density of net charge. That is not quite what it is, but go with it for now.

The Earth is very large, and if it gives up a few electrons to neutralize a positive charge on a relatively tiny positive sphere, that tiny quantity of charge will not change the potential (voltage) of the earth. Divide that charge over the entire surface of the earth, and you will still have a neutral earth.

The Earth has the ability to give or take enough electrons to neutralize any positive or negative net charge.
 

What does it mean for the Earth to act as a conductor?

When we say that the Earth acts as a conductor, it means that it allows the flow of electric current through its surface. This is because the Earth's surface is made up of materials, such as water and minerals, that can conduct electricity.

How does the Earth act as a conductor?

The Earth acts as a conductor due to its high conductivity, which is a measure of how easily electricity can pass through a material. The Earth's surface is made up of materials that have a high conductivity, such as metals and minerals, allowing the flow of electric current.

Why is the Earth a good conductor?

The Earth is a good conductor because it has a high concentration of free electrons, which are negatively charged particles that can easily move and carry electric current. This is due to the Earth's large size and the materials that make up its surface.

What is the purpose of the Earth acting as a conductor?

The Earth acting as a conductor helps to disperse and neutralize electric charges that build up on the surface due to atmospheric conditions or human activities. This helps to prevent damage to electronic equipment and ensures the safety of living beings.

Can the Earth act as both a conductor and an insulator?

Yes, the Earth can act as both a conductor and an insulator. While the Earth's surface is a good conductor, the layers of soil and rock beneath it act as insulators, preventing the flow of electric current deeper into the ground.

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