A huge common misconception about brain function is that function can be localized to "very" specific locations. However, reductionism falls apart when speaking about emergent phenomenon such as higher order brain functions (e.g. feeling of knowing, consciousness, visio-spatial processing). Just as the intelligence of ants, bees, an colonies of bacteria doesn't exist at the individual level, all of most fundamental human attributes only exists on the group level (purely epiphenomenological). Because of this, there is a certain uncertainty in both space and time for which these emergent phenomena exist. Time has only recently enter neuroscience which changes things a lot because anesthesia freezes the brain map in time (and space) so isn't a very good model (anymore) to understand emergent phenomena. This concept that the more you try to localize some aspect of nature the more uncertain you are about another aspect resonates with me. Can someone point me in the direction to where I can develop mathematical tools so I can maybe obtain some deeper understanding of these emergent phenomena by analyzing how this uncertainty between function, space, and time occurs?