Generally, in organic reactions, the para isomer is found to be more stable (as it is symmetrical) because of which it is produced in greater amount than the ortho isomer. However, there are some exceptions also, for example, in some reactions the less sterically hindered ortho isomer is produced in more amount than the corresponding para isomer. If all this is true, then, 1) In Kolbe's reaction (where phenol is first treated with NaOH and then with CO2), why is ortho isomer of Hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) - which is 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid produced in greater amount than 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid? There's absolutely no steric hindrance present at the para position! 2)Also, when phenol is treated with dilute HNO3 at 293K, para isomer (p-Nitrophenol) is produced in greater amounts than o-Nitrophenol. Why? PS - I'm a high school student, so please answer accordingly. Thanks in advance!