String theory and the M theory?

  • #1
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In string theory/M theory, there are two types of strings, open and closed strings. What kind of strings are fermions(electrons, quarks) made out of? Closed or open strings?
 

Answers and Replies

  • #2
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From the book The Trouble with Physics by Lee Smolin, the ends of open strings can represent charged particles and closed ones can represent the graviton. See page 106.
 

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