# Supermassive BHs: Forming Farthest Quasars

• capnahab
In summary: When one particle collides with another the energy is transferred in three ways: kinetic, potential, and thermal. The kinetic energy is the energy of the particles themselves, the potential energy is the energy of the forces between the particles, and the thermal energy is the energy of the particles' motion. In this scenario the extra mass would come from the thermal energy of the particles. Thanks for the clarification.
capnahab
I know I am way out of my league but I have a thought experiment concerning BHs and I am trying to fathom super massive BHs with the limited amount of time for them to form to create the farthest Quasars. In my thought experiment I envision a black hole not to be a point but the Planck length in diameter. The BHs have no charge and are non rotating. If a primortial BH were traveling close to C and collided with another BH traveling close to C and collided at the exact center of each other I think they would merge and stop in space with a much larger amount of mass than BH1 and BH2 conbined. Probably a mass increase in the amount of billions of times BH1 and BH2 combined. I have read on this forum that singularities are not possible in nature. This is a dumb question but I think it is possible.

capnahab said:
I know I am way out of my league but I have a thought experiment concerning BHs and I am trying to fathom super massive BHs with the limited amount of time for them to form to create the farthest Quasars. In my thought experiment I envision a black hole not to be a point but the Planck length in diameter. The BHs have no charge and are non rotating. If a primortial BH were traveling close to C and collided with another BH traveling close to C and collided at the exact center of each other I think they would merge and stop in space with a much larger amount of mass than BH1 and BH2 conbined. Probably a mass increase in the amount of billions of times BH1 and BH2 combined. I have read on this forum that singularities are not possible in nature. This is a dumb question but I think it is possible.
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I know very little also, but where would your extra mass come from ?

The exterior of a black hole has a radius proportional to its mass. What is going on inside is unknown. Relativity and quantum theory cannot be reconciled. Singularity comes from relativity without taking quantum theory into account.

The Planck length is merely a convenient unit with respect to the speed of light. c is the only reliable constant in the Einstein version of our universe. Units of measure are otherwise meaningless. If you check the NST tables, you will notice Planck units incorporate a 'c' component in the calculation.

Thanks for responding to the layman. I kept the first post short because I enjoy, and am sure others do, reading short posts.

My thought experiment concerns the Big Bang. In the first few moments of creation I envision a Black Hole growing out of nothing that has the entire mass of our universe. In these first few moments this single large Black Hole changes into a lot of mini/micro black holes before matter is formed. During these first few moments these small Black Holes are colliding and merging enough to form even larger ones and then even larger ones until finally some become so massive as to to create the super massive Black Holes that we can detect from the farthest Quasars. Once the infant universe got a little larger the merging stopped. Most of the micro/mini Black Holes would evaporate during these first few moments creating the energy to keep pushing outward.

Aye, but here is the rub . . . gravity is emergent. It does not exist before the first Planck tick of time in the big bang model. By the 'time' gravity emerges in our observable universe, the universe is inflating too rapidly for gravity to repent. Perhaps our universe made a nigh infinite number of attempts to 'big bang' its way into existence, but, gravity only let its guard down during the last cycle . . . an 'asleep at the wheel' explanation.

In answer to wolram, when the primortial micro BHs collided from opposite directions at the direct center and merged the extra mass would come from conservation of energy.

## 1. How do supermassive black holes form?

Supermassive black holes are believed to form from the merging of smaller black holes and the accretion of surrounding matter. These processes can occur in the centers of galaxies, where there is a high concentration of matter.

## 2. How are supermassive black holes related to quasars?

Quasars are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes. As matter falls into the black hole, it heats up and emits large amounts of radiation, creating the bright quasar phenomenon.

## 3. How far away are the farthest quasars?

The farthest quasars are located billions of light years away from Earth. This means that the light we see from these objects has been traveling to us for billions of years.

## 4. Can supermassive black holes be observed directly?

It is not currently possible to observe supermassive black holes directly, as they do not emit any light. However, their effects on surrounding matter and radiation can be observed, providing evidence for their existence.

## 5. How do we study the formation of supermassive black holes in the farthest quasars?

Scientists use a variety of methods to study the formation of supermassive black holes, including computer simulations, observations of quasars at different distances, and studying the properties of galaxies that host quasars. By combining these approaches, we can gain a better understanding of how these massive objects formed in the early universe.

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