Hi, Could someone help me out regarding chemist lingo? i) "were heated to reflux for one hour" Does it mean that the stuff was heated, or even boiling, but with condensing the vapor back to the container (so that the solvent is not lost)? ii) "the solution was then washed with 5% aqueous Na2CO3" Does this simply mean that you pour in the Na2CO3 dissolved in water, and that is all, or is there something else done? iii) "was allowed to stand over solid anhydrous Na2SO4 for 15 minutes" Does this mean you just pour it over that Na2SO4 (powder, I guess), and wait? iv) "after slowly cooling the solution, crystals were obtained, which after filtering and drying gave a melting point of 205°" How do you filter CRYSTALS?? Also, is drying really what a layperson would think (i.e., let it dry over air, or like using the hair-dryer), or is it something different? v) solubility units If solubility is given as a number without any units (e.g., 0.03, or 6.3), does that mean simple molar ratio (stuff to solvent)? Thanks for any help to elucidate these. I am trying to make sense of this experiment: "Phthalic acid and aniline were heated to reflux for one hour. Upon cooling, the mixture was dissolved in ether and placed in a separatory funnel. The solution was then washed with 5% aqueous Na2CO3 followed by 5% aqueous HCl and allowed to stand over solid anhydrous Na2SO4 for 15 minutes. The ether was then evaporated and a solid product obtained. The crude product was dissolved in an appropriate hot solvent and after slowly cooling the solution, crystals were obtained, which after filtering and drying gave a melting point of 205° to 207°C. The literature value for the melting point of the expected product is 208°C."