A lot has been discussed/posted about various models/theories to explain consciousness, the systems of laws, fundamental physics, emergence, upward and downward causality etc. However I think too much of these theories focus on GENERAL universals and ultimately on the mechanisms, but not on the question of what determines the identity of subsets of the universals. For example, lets say the entire universe (I mean EVERYTHING) is represented by a simple circle (bear with me a bit). A given subset of the universe let's say is represented by a point on this circle such as http://www.kjmaclean.com/WebMovie/book1circle.jpg This point A on the circle has no more special relevance than any other point B on the circle. However, the point A has a UNIQUE RELATIVE position to all the other points on the circle. For example a point C on the circle has a specified distance from A along either direction that is not the same as point B. Therefore this is analogous to a given subset of the universe having no special relevance than any other subset, however it is unique in that it has a non-duplicatable relationship to all other subsets of the universe, it has an IDENTITY, an ultimate fundamental ADDRESS. To me the big question is what systems of laws dermines (or could determine) these identities.