Hi Q-1:How do they become grounds for erroneous reasoning?
Other decisions/conclusions may be OK to use with a certainty somewhere between these extremes, but it is generally useful to choose a criterion for acceptable confidence. One contribution to "erroneous reasoning" is the lack of a well chosen confidence criterion.
Hi Q-1:What do you mean by adhering to "a criterion"?
Have you read descriptions on the image? At least for some constructing an example that will show why the final conclusion of a reasoning will be erroneous is quite trivial.
Sorry I was not clear. By "criterion", in the context of my post, I mean a conscious sense of how confident you must be (either numerically or by whatever confidence categories you are comfortable with) before you make a decision/conclusion.
Hi Q-1:What do you mean by "confidence" here?
Please post a relatively simple non-mathematical statement which you believe to be true.
Hi Q-1:The poster known as Q-1 is a person.
Q: How certain are you that the statement is correct?
Hi Q-1:Well, I feel comfortably certain about it. Not sure where you're going with this.
For the purpose of the example, I asked you to answer with a percent. See my post #14.
Hi Q-1:I am 100% certain that I am a person.
Using your example, it is what you guess to be the probability that what you believe/decide/conclude is correct.What do you mean by "confidence" here?
What this tells me is that you absolutely reject all the speculations that have been discussed in various places about the (very remote) possibility that the universe is an artificial intelligence simulation, and all the people on what seems to be the planet Earth are part of this simulation, together with all of the things these simulated people are simulated to see, hear, taste, smell, and feel.