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Would someone give a short introduction to number theory here? Why It is so important as Gauss says? I've heard that all great mathematicians were good number theorists, from Euler, Gauss, Eisenstein, Galois and other great 19th century mathematicians to contemporary mathematicians like Emil Artin, G.H. Hardy, Paul Erdos, all of them were strong mathematicians in number theory. so If someone tells me about number theory more, I'd really appreciate that.