Thermodynamic temperature is a quantity defined in thermodynamics as distinct from kinetic theory or statistical mechanics.
Historically, thermodynamic temperature was defined by Kelvin in terms of a macroscopic relation between thermodynamic work and heat transfer as defined in thermodynamics, but the kelvin was redefined by international agreement in 2019 in terms of phenomena that are now understood as manifestations of the kinetic energy of free motion of microscopic particles such as atoms, molecules, and electrons. From the thermodynamic viewpoint, for historical reasons, because of how it is defined and measured, this microscopic kinetic definition is regarded as an "empirical" temperature. It was adopted because in practice it can generally be measured more precisely than can Kelvin's thermodynamic temperature.
A thermodynamic temperature reading of zero is of particular importance for the third law of thermodynamics. By convention, it is reported on the Kelvin scale of temperature in which the unit of measurement is the kelvin (unit symbol: K). For comparison, a temperature of 295 K is equal to 21.85 °C and 71.33 °F.
Hi all,
recently I started following the MIT course "Statistical Mechanics I: Statistical Mechanics Of Particles" by MIT (here).
In the second lesson Prof. Kardar introduces the concept of thermodynamic temperature analyzing the behavior of two Carnot engines that share a thermal reservour at...
For this problem,
The solution is,
However, why must we use absolute temperature for the ideal gas law (i.e why can we not use Celsius for T)
Many thanks!
Hi all
These days I am refreshing my knowledge on the concept and measurement of temperature. One way of defining temperature is in terms of how it is measured. This can be done by observing the variation of some properties which vary linearly with the hotness(temperature) of bodies. I studied...
Is the idea of negative absolute temperature analogous to a virtual image in geometrical optics?
I was reading this article about such a negative temperature:
http://www.livescience.com/25959-atoms-colder-than-absolute-zero.html
It seems to me that since temperature is defined by its...
Homework Statement
The ammonia molecule (NH3) has a dipole moment of 5.0×10−30C⋅m. Ammonia molecules in the gas phase are placed in a uniform electric field E⃗ with magnitude 1.3×106 N/C .
Part A:
What is the change in electric potential energy when the dipole moment of a molecule changes...
Homework Statement
I[/B] have some difficulties proving that the ideal gas temperature is directly proportional to absolute temperature defined by the second law of thermodynamics.
Homework Equations
The ideal gas temp. is defined by the ideal gas equation: pV=NkTi(T), where k is Boltzmann's...
“The inverted Boltzmann distribution is the hallmark of negative absolute temperature; and this is what we have achieved,” says Ulrich Schneider. “Yet the gas is not colder than zero kelvin, but hotter,” as the physicist explains: “It is even hotter than at any positive temperature – the...
what is the relation between Specific Heat and Absolute Temperature of any material ?
Specifically, Sodium.
Cp vs T ( not the change in temperature)
Any mathematical formula ?
Thanks
Homework Statement
A cylinder in a car engine takes Vi = 4.50 x 10^-2 m^3 of air into the chamber at 30°C and at atmospheric pressure. The piston then compresses the air to one-ninth of the original volume (0.111Vi) and to 20.0 times the original pressure (20.0 Pi). What is the new...