What is Cosmological models: Definition and 18 Discussions

Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the study of cosmological models. A cosmological model, or simply cosmology, provides a description of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and allows study of fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed those physical laws to be understood. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the development in 1915 of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, followed by major observational discoveries in the 1920s: first, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe contains a huge number of external galaxies beyond the Milky Way; then, work by Vesto Slipher and others showed that the universe is expanding. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed the establishment of the Big Bang theory, by Georges Lemaître, as the leading cosmological model. A few researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, most cosmologists agree that the Big Bang theory best explains the observations.
Dramatic advances in observational cosmology since the 1990s, including the cosmic microwave background, distant supernovae and galaxy redshift surveys, have led to the development of a standard model of cosmology. This model requires the universe to contain large amounts of dark matter and dark energy whose nature is currently not well understood, but the model gives detailed predictions that are in excellent agreement with many diverse observations.Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in theoretical and applied physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, theoretical and observational astrophysics, general relativity, quantum mechanics, and plasma physics.

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  1. cianfa72

    I Meaning of the distance between galactic objects in GR

    Hi, I was thinking about the claim that for instance Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) black hole is a at 26996±29 light years from the Earth from a GR point of view. Assuming a FLRW model for the Universe, maybe the above meaning is that at a given cosmological time ##t## (the "present" time) the proper...
  2. Safinaz

    A A question from a paper on perturbation theory

    Where ##\delta \phi## is the first-order perturbation of a scalar field, ##\Phi## is the first-order perturbation of the space-time metric, and ##H## is the universe’s scale factor. It’s mentioned that this relation is given in reference: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1002.0600.pdf But I can't find...
  3. M

    I Expansion of the Universe and the cosmological principle

    Wikipedia states the following in their article about the expansion of the universe: If the cosmological principle was discovered to be false in our universe, i.e. our universe was discovered to be inhomogeneous or anisotropic or both on very large scales and the FLRW metric does not hold for...
  4. J

    I How well do cosmological models explain the observed µ vs. z data?

    The following figure shows observed distance modulus (µ) vs. redshift (z) data (references of data sources are available): How well do cosmological models, such as ΛCDM and models based on non-expanding universe, explain these observed data? For explanation of terms, please see, Type Ia...
  5. Buzz Bloom

    I Qs re Cosmological Models Using Bayesian Probability Methods

    I am familiar with non-Bayesian methods for calculating best fit values of various parametric models, but I have not had any experience with cosmological models calculations. My understanding is that these models have five parameters: H0, Ωr, Ωm, Ωk, ΩΛ, and the last four satisfy the constraint...
  6. QuarkDecay

    A Different FRW Cosmological Models

    ρο/a4 ρο/a3 k Λ Βig Bang Big Crunch Polynomial Expansion Exponential Expansion x 0 x 0 >0 x +1 x +1 x 0 <0 x -1 x -1 >0...
  7. S

    I Has cosmic background radiation been measured underground?

    I am interested to know if cosmic microwave (160 Ghz) or cosmic radio (20-50 Mhz) background radiation has ever been measured/detected underground or underwater? This may seem like an odd question as you’d expect lots of rock and water to attenuate or block the cosmic radiation photons, but I...
  8. L

    I Is There an Extra Time Dimension in Paul Steinhardt's Cyclic Model?

    Hello. I think I don't understand very well the Paul Steinhardt's cyclic model of Universe(s). According to Paul Steinhardt, 2 universes get closer. Then, there's the big bounce, which products effects like a big bang. If 2 universes get closer, they have a (relative) speed ( speed is the...
  9. V

    A Systematic study comparing cosmological models?

    Hi, my question is if there exists a study systematically comparing different cosmological models in how well they fit the same standard cosmological data sets (CMB, luminosity, BOA, SNe, lensing,...). I can find very little besides LCDM. In the rare case of a comparison, it leads to...
  10. M

    Cosmological models and begining and ending of universe

    hey everyone... i am working on an assignment of cosmological models and beginning and ending of the universe but unable to find something that is compact and describe it all.. can anyone help me in making of this assignment please
  11. Chronos

    Cosmological models with variable EoS

    An interesting and well presented new paper by Kumar and Xu: "Observational constraints on a cosmological model with variable equation of state parameters for matter and dark energy" http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.5582 The idea of a variable equation of state for matter and dark energy is not...
  12. T

    Cosmological models - Evolution of Inhomogenity

    Homework Statement I'm working on a project to find evolution equations for a cosmological model, where the following propagations equations are known, \dot{\mu}=-\Theta\mu \dot{\Theta}=-\frac{1}{3}\Theta^{2}-2\sigma^{2}-\frac{1}{2}\mu...
  13. tom.stoer

    Comprehensive list of cosmological models and their properties?

    Does anybody know about a comprehensive list of cosmological models and their properties? E.g. FRW, dS, AdS, ... Goedelspacetime, ... with metrics g, Christoffel symbols, Riemann tensors, Ricci, Ricci scalar, Kretschmann scalar, ... Tom
  14. C

    Cosmological Models Predicting Heat Death of the Universe

    I have read that some cosmological models predict a heat death of the universe. Eventually all matter (beggining with superclusters, clusters, then galaxies, then stars) will lose all energy and separate (due to expansion which will eventually occur even on a galactically local level) so that...
  15. K

    Cosmological Models: Exploring Common Models

    Which of the common cosmological models do you prefer and why? Assume we don't know which if any of the models is the actual one that matches the universe.
  16. A

    Stability of cosmological models

    to those experts in the field of cosmology i was wondering if " large scale structures can be formed in stable cosmological models" or should i say that " large scale structures cannot be formed in those cosmological models that are stable with respect to gravitational or other curvature...
  17. Peter Morgan

    Are there cosmological models in which Planck's constant varies?

    If we take Planck's constant to be a measure of quantum fluctuations, which seems natural in the world-view of https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=204567", then it also seems natural to ask whether Planck's constant might vary over cosmological scales, just as temperature is a measure...
  18. V

    Is the Multiverse Theory More Plausible Than Inflationary or Ekpyrotic Models?

    There is much confusion and mystery surrounding the Multiverse Theory. At present there is a wide range of different Multiverse Theories, which this paper does a good job in giving the basic concept behind the different variations Multiverse cosmological models