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http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.0164

A strict non-standard inequality .999... < 1

Authors: Karin Usadi Katz, Mikhail G. Katz

(Submitted on 2 Nov 2008 (v1), last revised 24 Feb 2009 (this version, v8))

Abstract: Is .999... equal to 1? Lightstone's decimal expansions yield an infinity of numbers in [0,1] whose expansion starts with an unbounded number of digits "9". We present some non-standard thoughts on the ambiguity of an ellipsis, modeling the cognitive concept of generic limit of B. Cornu and D. Tall. A choice of a non-standard hyperinteger H specifies an H-infinite extended decimal string of 9s, corresponding to an infinitesimally diminished hyperreal value. In our model, the student resistance to the unital evaluation of .999... is directed against an unspoken and unacknowledged application of the standard part function, namely the stripping away of a ghost of an infinitesimal, to echo George Berkeley. So long as the number system has not been specified, the students' hunch that .999... can fall infinitesimally short of 1, can be justified in a mathematically rigorous fashion.